EMPEROR OF ETHIOPIA

Selassie The Lion of Judah The Last King of Ethiopia Ruler of Ethiopia Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie Emperor of Ethiopia during WW2 Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 1974 Ethiopian Monarchy Ethiopian Rulers List

Emperor of Ethiopia




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| Selassie The Lion of Judah | The Last King of Ethiopia | Ruler of Ethiopia | Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie | Emperor of Ethiopia during WW2 | Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 1974 | Ethiopian Monarchy | Ethiopian Rulers List |

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  1. Menelik II - Emperor of Ethiopia (1844-1913) - Menelik's modernization, the Treaty of Wuchale which led to war with Italy.
  2. Menelik II - Emperor of Ethiopia (1844-1913) - Menelik's modernization, the Treaty of Wuchale which led to war with Italy.


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    emperor of ethiopia haile selassie emperor of ethiopia ethiopian last emperor of ethiopia emperor of ethiopia in 1935 emperor of ethiopia 1930 1974 former emperor of ethiopia first emperor of ethiopia emperor of ethiopia during ww2



    Emperor of Ethiopia


    Emperor of Ethiopia
    Former Monarchy
    Imperial Coat of Arms of Ethiopia (Haile Selassie).svg
    Imperial Coat of arms
    Selassie restored.jpg
    Haile Selassie I
    First monarch Menelik I
    Last monarch Haile Selassie I
    Style His Imperial Majesty
    Official residence Menelik Palace
    Appointer Hereditary
    Monarchy began 950 BC[1]
    Monarchy ended 12 September 1974
    Current pretender(s) Zera Selassie

    The Emperor of Ethiopia (Ge'ez: ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1974. The Emperor was the head of state and head of government, with ultimate executive, judicial and legislative power in that country. A National Geographic Magazine article called imperial Ethiopia "nominally a constitutional monarchy; in fact [it was] a benevolent autocracy."[2]


    Emperor of Ethiopia Style


    The title of "Shewa, received the honorific title of nəgus, a word for "king."

    The consort of the Emperor was referred to as the ətege. Empress Zauditu used the feminized form nəgəstä nägäst ("Queen of Kings") to show that she reigned in her own right, and did not use the title of ətege.


    Emperor of Ethiopia Succession


    Imperial Standard (obverse)
    Imperial Standard (reverse)

    Succession to the throne at the death of the Monarch could be claimed by any male blood relative of the Emperor: sons, brothers, uncles or cousins. Primogeniture was preferred but not always enforced. As a result, two steps were taken: the first, employed on occasion before the 20th century, was to intern all of the Emperor's possible rivals in a secure location, which drastically limited their ability to disrupt the Empire with revolts or dispute the succession of an heir apparent; the second was that, with increasing frequency, Emperors were selected by a council of the senior officials of the realm, both secular and religious.

    Ethiopian traditions do not all agree as to exactly when the custom started of imprisoning rivals to the throne on a Mountain of the Princes. One tradition credits this practice to the Zagwe king Yemrehana Krestos, who is said to have received the idea in a dream;[4] Taddesse Tamrat discredits this tradition, arguing that the records of the Zagwe dynasty betray too many disputed successions for this to have been the case.[5] Another tradition, recorded by Thomas Pakenham, states that this practice predates the Zagwe dynasty, and was first practiced on Debre Damo, which was captured by the 10th-century queen Gudit, who then isolated 200 princes there to death; however, Pakenham also notes that when questioned, the abbot of the monastery on Debre Damo knew of no such tale.[6] Taddesse Tamrat argues that this practice began in the reign of Wedem Arad, following the struggle for succession that he believes lies behind the series of brief reigns of the sons of Yagbe'u Seyon. A constructivist approach states that the tradition was used on occasion, weakened or lapsed sometimes, and was sometimes revived to full effect after some unfortunate disputes - and that the custom started in time immemorial as Ethiopian common inheritance pattern allowed all agnates to also succeed to the lands of the monarchy - which however is contrary to keeping the country undivided.

    These potential rivals were incarcerated at Amba Geshen until Ahmed Gragn captured and destroyed that site; then, from the reign of Fasilides until the mid-18th century, at Wehni. Rumors of these royal mountain residences were part of the inspiration for Samuel Johnson's short story, Rasselas.

    Although the Emperor of Ethiopia had theoretically unlimited power over his subjects, his councilors came to play an increasing role in governing Ethiopia, because many Emperors were succeeded either by a child, or one of the incarcerated princes, who could only successfully leave their prisons with help from the outside. As a result, by the mid-18th century the power of the Emperor had been largely transferred to his deputies, like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, who held the actual power of the Empire and elevated or deposed Emperors at will in their struggle for control of the entire realm.


    Emperor of Ethiopia Ideology


    The Emperors of Ethiopia derived their right to rule based on two dynastic claims: their descent from the kings of Axum, and their descent from Menelik I, the son of Solomon and Makeda, Queen of Sheba.

    The claim to their relationship to the Kings of Axum derives from Yakuno Amlak's claim that he was the descendant of Dil Na'od, through his father, although he defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle. His claim to the throne was also helped by his marriage to that king's daughter, even though Ethiopians commonly do not acknowledge claims from the distaff side.

    The claim of descent from Menelik I is based on the assertion that the kings of Axum were also the descendants of Menelik I; its definitive and best-known formulation is set forth in the Kebra Nagast. While the surviving records of these kings fail to shed light on their origins, this genealogical claim is first documented in the 10th century by an Arab historian. Interpretations of this claim vary widely. Some (including many inside Ethiopia) accept it as evident fact. At the other extreme, others (mostly interested non-Ethiopians) understand this as an expression of propaganda, attempting to connect the legitimacy of the state to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Some scholars take an approach in the middle, attempting to either find a connection between Axum and the South Arabian kingdom of Saba, or between Axum and the pre-exilic Kingdom of Judah. Due to lack of primary materials, it is not possible as of 2006 to determine which theory is the more plausible.


    Emperor of Ethiopia History



    Emperor of Ethiopia The Solomonic dynasty

    Conquering Lion of Judah

    The restored Solomonic dynasty, which claimed descent from the old Aksumite rulers, ruled Ethiopia from 13th century until 1974, with only a couple of usurpers. The most significant usurper was Kassa of Kwara, who in 1855 took complete control over Ethiopia and was crowned Tewodros II (he developed a claim to have been descended from Solomonics in distaff side). After his defeat and demise, another Solomonic dynasty, Dejazmatch Kassai took over as Yohannes IV; however, his distaff descent from Solomonics was a well-attested fact. Menelik of Shewa, who descended from Solomonic Emperors, in the direct male line (junior only to the Gondar line), ascended the imperial throne following Yohannis IV's death, thus purporting to restore the male-line Solomonic tradition.

    The most famous post-Theodorean Emperors were Yohannes IV, Menelik II and Haile Selassie. Emperor Menelik II achieved a major military victory against Italian invaders in March 1896 at the Battle of Adwa actually Ras Alula Abanega play great role on the victory, the first major victory of an African nation against a colonial power. Menelik gave Eritrea to Italy and also sold Djubouti to France. After Menelik, all monarchs were of distaff descent from Solomonics. The male line, through the descendants of Menelik's cousin Dejazmatch Taye Gulilat, still existed, but had been pushed aside largely because of Menelik's personal distaste for this branch of his family. Menelik's Solomonic successors ruled the country until the military coup in 1974.


    Emperor of Ethiopia Italian conquest of Ethiopia

    In 1936, with the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie was forced to flee abroad. Benito Mussolini instead declared Ethiopia, together with Eritrea and Somalia (already Italian colonies) a colonial Empire. Victor Emmanuel III was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia - a title considered illegitimate by parts of the international community, which lasted only five years.


    Emperor of Ethiopia Return of Haile Selassie

    Haile Selassie returned to power with the British conquest of the Italian East Africa during World War II. In January 1942 he was officially reinstated to power in Ethiopia by the British government.

    The position of the Emperor and the Line of succession were strictly defined in both of the constitutions adopted during the reign of Haile Selassie: the one adopted on July 16, 1931; and the revised one of November 1955.

    The last Solomonic monarch to rule Ethiopia was Amha Selassie, who was offered the throne by the Derg after his father Haile Selassie's deposition September 12, 1974. When Amha Selassie, understandably mistrustful of the Derg, refused to return to Ethiopia to rule, the Derg announced that the monarchy had come to an end in March 1975. In April 1989, Amha Selassie was proclaimed Emperor in exile at London, with his succession backdated to the date of Emperor Haile Selassie's death in August 1975 rather than his deposition in September of 1974. In 1993 a group called the "Crown Council of Ethiopia", which includes several descendants of Haile Selassie, claimed that the nəgusä nägäst was still in existence, and was the legal head of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian constitution of 1995 confirmed the abolition of the Emperorship.


    Emperor of Ethiopia Family tree



    Emperor of Ethiopia Legend

    Lion of Judah.svg EMPEROR (bold, capital letters)


    Marriage


    Descent


    Uncertain/purported/legendary descent
    HOUSE OF DAVID
    Star of David.svg
    SOLOMON
    King of Israel
    MAKEDA
    Queen of Sheba
    Lion of Judah.svg
    MENELIK I
    Semi-legendary first emperor
    KINGS OF AXUM
    (mostly ahistorical, legendary genealogy)
    DIL NA'OD (TIGRAY DYNSTY)
    Last King of Axum
    Lion of Judah.svg
    MARA TAKLA HAYMANOT
    (1)
    Masoba Warq
    Mkhbara Widam
    (Mahbere-Widam)
    ZAGWE DYNASTY
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TATADIM
    (2)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    JAN SEYUM
    (3)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    GERMA SEYUM
    (4)
    Agba Seyun
    (Yakob)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    KEDUS HARBE
    (6)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    GEBRE MESQEL LALIBELA
    (7)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YEMREHANA KRESTOS
    (5)
    Sinfa Ar'ad
    Lion of Judah.svg
    NA'AKUETO LA'AB
    (8)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YETBARAK
    (9)
    Negus Zaré
    Asfiha
    Yakob
    Bahr Seggad
    Zagwe Dynasty continued to rule in Lasta for centuries; restored to imperial throne in 1868.
    Adam Asgad
    (Widma Asgad)
    Tasfa Iyasus
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YEKUNO AMLAK
    1270–1285
    SOLOMONIC DYNASTY
    Lion of Judah.svg
    Yagbe'u Seyon
    (SALOMON I)

    1285–1294
    Lion of Judah.svg
    WEDEM ARAD
    1299–1314
    Prince Qidma Seggada
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SENFA ARED IV
    1294–1295
    Lion of Judah.svg
    HEZBA ASGAD
    1295–1296
    Lion of Judah.svg
    QEDMA ASGAD
    1296–1297
    Lion of Judah.svg
    JIN ASGAD
    1297–1298
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SABA ASGAD
    1298–1299
    Lion of Judah.svg
    AMDA SEYON I
    1314–1344
    Lion of Judah.svg
    NEWAYA KRESTOS
    1344–1372
    Lion of Judah.svg
    DAWIT I
    1382–1413
    Lion of Judah.svg
    NEWAYA MARYAM
    1372–1382
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEWODROS I
    1413–1414
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YESHAQ I
    1414–1429
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TAKLA MARYAM
    1430–1433
    Lion of Judah.svg
    ZARA YAQOB
    1434–1468
    Lion of Judah.svg
    ANDREYAS
    1429–1430
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SARWE IYASUS
    1433
    Lion of Judah.svg
    AMDA IYASUS
    1433–1434
    Lion of Judah.svg
    BAEDA MARYAM I
    1468–1478
    Lion of Judah.svg
    ESKENDER
    1478–1494
    Lion of Judah.svg
    NA'OD
    1494–1507
    Lion of Judah.svg
    AMDA SEYON II
    1494
    Lion of Judah.svg
    DAWIT II
    1507–1540
    Lion of Judah.svg
    GELAWDEWOS
    1540–1559
    Lion of Judah.svg
    MENAS
    1559–1563
    Prince Yakob
    SOLOMONIC DYNASTY
    GONDAR BRANCH
    SOLOMONIC DYNASTY
    SHEWA BRANCH
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SARSA DENGEL
    1563–1597
    Prince Lesana Krestos
    Prince Fasilidas
    Prince Segwa Qal
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YAQOB
    1597–1603
    1604–1606
    Lion of Judah.svg
    ZA DENGEL
    1603–1604
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SUSENYOS I
    1606–1632
    Warada Qal
    Lion of Judah.svg
    FASILIDES
    1632–1667
    Lebsa Qal
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YOHANNES I
    1667–1682
    Negasi Krestos
    Ruler of Shewa
    Princess Amlakawit
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYASU I
    1682–1706
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEWOFLOS
    1708–1711
    Sebestyanos
    Ruler of Shewa
    Delba Iyasus
    Dejazmatch of Tigray
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEKLE HAYMANOT I
    1706–1708
    Lion of Judah.svg
    BAKAFFA
    1721–1730
    Lion of Judah.svg
    DAWIT III
    1716–1721
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YOHANNES II
    1769
    Qedami Qal
    Ruler of Shewa
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YOSTOS
    1711–1716
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYASU II
    1730–1755
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEKLE HAYMANOT II
    1769–1770
    1770–1777
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEKLE GIYORGIS I
    1779–1784
    1788–1789
    1794–1795
    1795–1796
    1798–1799
    1800
    Amha Iyasus
    Ruler of Shewa
    Prince Adigo
    Prince Atsequ
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYOAS I
    1755–1769
    Lion of Judah.svg
    HEZQEYAS
    1789–1794
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SALOMON III
    1796–1797
    1799
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YOHANNES III
    1840–1841
    1845
    1850–1851
    Asfa Wossen
    Ruler of Shewa
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SALOMON II
    1777–1779
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYASU III
    1784–1788
    Lion of Judah.svg
    EGWALE SEYON
    1801–1818
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYOAS II
    1818–1821
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYASU IV
    1830–1832
    Unascertainable claims of descent from Fasilides
    (intermediate generations omitted)
    Wossen Seged
    Ruler of Shewa
    (alleged sons of Iyasu II)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    BAEDA MARYAM II
    1795
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SUSENYOS II
    1770
    Lion of Judah.svg
    GIGAR
    1821–1826
    1826–1830
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YONAS
    1797–1798
    Gabre Masai
    Lion of Judah.svg
    DEMETROS
    1799–1800
    1800–1801
    Lion of Judah.svg
    GEBRE KRESTOS
    1832
    Lion of Judah.svg
    SAHLE DENGEL
    1832–1840
    1841–1845
    1845–1850
    1851–1855
    Sahle Selassie
    Ruler of Shewa
    N.B.: BAEDA MARYAM III (1826) omitted due to unknown parentage
    TIGRAY DYNASTY
    TEWODROS DYNASTY
    Mirtcha Wolde Kidane
    Shum of Tembien
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEWODROS II
    1855–1868
    Haile Melekot
    Ruler of Shewa
    Princess Tenagnework
    ZAGWE DYNASTY
    (RESTORED)
    Lion of Judah.svg
    TEKLE GIYORGIS II
    1868–1872
    Empress Dinqinesh
    Lion of Judah.svg
    YOHANNES IV
    1872–1889
    Woizero Altash
    Lion of Judah.svg
    MENELIK II
    1889–1913
    Other wives
    Ras Makonnen
    Governor of Harar
    Araya Selassie
    King of Tigray
    Lion of Judah.svg
    ZEWDITU I
    1916–1930
    Princess Shoagarad
    Lion of Judah.svg
    HAILE SELASSIE I
    1930–1974
    Lion of Judah.svg
    IYASU V
    1913–1916
    AMHA SELASSIE
    1989–1997
    Crown Prince
    Titular Emperor
    ZERA SELASSIE
    1997–present
    Crown Prince
    Titular Emperor

    Emperor of Ethiopia See also



    Emperor of Ethiopia Notes


    1. ^ "The Ark of the Covenant: The Ethiopian Tradition". Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
    2. ^ Nathaniel T. Kenney, "Ethiopian Adventure", National Geographic, 127 (1965), p. 555.
    3. ^ Yuri M. Kobishchanov, Axum, translated by Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, and edited by Joseph W. Michels (University Park: University of Pennsylvania State Press, 1979), p. 195. ISBN 0-271-00531-9.
    4. ^ Francisco Álvares, The Prester John of the Indies, translated by Lord Stanley of Alderley, revised and edited with additional material by C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society, 1961), p. 237ff.
    5. ^ Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia (1270 - 1527) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), p. 275, n. 3. ISBN 0-19-821671-8.
    6. ^ Thomas Pakenham, The Mountains of Rasselas (New York: Reynal & Co., 1959), p. 84. ISBN 0-297-82369-8.

    Emperor of Ethiopia References



    Emperor of Ethiopia External links




    Selassie The Lion of Judah The Last King of Ethiopia Ruler of Ethiopia Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie Emperor of Ethiopia during WW2 Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 1974 Ethiopian Monarchy Ethiopian Rulers List

    | Selassie The Lion of Judah | The Last King of Ethiopia | Ruler of Ethiopia | Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie | Emperor of Ethiopia during WW2 | Emperor of Ethiopia 1930 1974 | Ethiopian Monarchy | Ethiopian Rulers List | Emperor_of_Ethiopia | List_of_Emperors_of_Ethiopia | Emperor_Haile_Selassie_of_Ethiopia | Ethiopia | Emperor_of_Ethiopia_Theodore_II | Emperor_Menelik_II_of_Ethiopia | Wehni | Victor_Emmanuel_III_of_Italy | Solomonic_dynasty_(Ethiopia) | Tekle_Giyorgis_I_of_Ethiopia | 1955_Constitution_of_Ethiopia | Crown_Council_of_Ethiopia | Shoa,_Ethiopia | Yohannes_IV_of_Ethiopia | Amda_Seyon_of_Ethiopia | Iyasu_V_of_Ethiopia | Emperor_Amha_Selassie_of_Ethiopia | Gojam,_Ethiopia | Zara_Yaqob_of_Ethiopia | Axum,_Ethiopia | Sarsa_Dengel | Italian_occupation_of_Ethiopia | Salomon_III_of_Ethiopia | Zagwe_dynasty | History_of_Ethiopia | Ethiopian_Empire | Provisional_Military_Government_of_Socialist_Ethiopia | List_of_Presidents_of_Ethiopia | Amba_Geshen | Susenyos_of_Ethiopia | Fasilides_of_Ethiopia | Menelik_I_of_Ethiopia | Yekuno_Amlak_of_Ethiopia | Battle_of_Adwa | Menas_of_Ethiopia | Dawit_II_of_Ethiopia | Foreign_relations_of_Ethiopia | Dawit_I_of_Ethiopia | Tekle_Giyorgis_II_of_Ethiopia | Yohannes_III_of_Ethiopia | Bakaffa_of_Ethiopia | Alexander_of_Ethiopia | Kebra_Nagast | Mara_Takla_Haymanot | Amda_Seyon_II | Baeda_Maryam_of_Ethiopia | Sahle_Dengel_of_Ethiopia | List_of_heads_of_government_of_Ethiopia

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