EPIPHYTIC

Epiphytes Plants Epifight Plant Epiphytes Definition Epiphytic Orchids Epiphytic Cacti Epiphytic Bromeliads Epiphytic Algae Epiphytic Succulents




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| Epiphytes Plants | Epifight Plant | Epiphytes Definition | Epiphytic Orchids | Epiphytic Cacti | Epiphytic Bromeliads | Epiphytic Algae | Epiphytic Succulents |

| Epiphytic | Epiphytic_fungus | Hemi-epiphytic | Epiphytic_houseplants | Velamen | Catasetum | Disocactus | Lobaria_pulmonaria | Moonlight_cactus | Billbergia_nutans | Coryanthes | Sophronitis | Pleione_(orchid) | Catopsis_berteroniana | Columnea | Renanthera | Hatiora_gaertneri | Myrmecodia | Cyrtopodium | Utricularia_mannii | Asplenium_australasicum | Guarianthe | Huntleya | Hatiora | Houlletia | Podochilus | Ascoglossum | Tmesipteris_tannensis | Epidendrum_ibaguense | Oncophyllum_globuliforme | Luisia | Winika | Colura | Laelia_albida | Abdominea | Restrepia_antennifera | Rossioglossum_grande | Lepismium | Capanea | Amyema_miquelii | Psilotum_complanatum | Brassavola_flagellaris | Coilostylis_parkinsoniana | Hydnophytum | Masdevallia_goliath | Scaphyglottis_atwoodii | Disocactus_ackermannii | Dendrobium_cuthbertsonii | Dendrochilum_cobbianum | Masdevallia_ionocharis |

  1. Epiphyte Reviews - Short reviews, mainly of science fiction novels.
  2. Fernacres Nursery - Offers a variety of treefern carvings and a range of tree, ground and epiphytic ferns and Australian native epiphytic orchids.
  3. Borsboom, Emanuel - Personal information, resume, photos and links.
  4. Epiphyte: Wil McCarthy: Murder In the Solid State - Review by Christina Schulman about this "Evil Conspiracy story with some interesting speculation about nanotech thrown in."
  5. Epiphyte: Wil McCarthy: Bloom - Review by Christina Schulman of this hard science fiction novel on a grand scale.
  6. Fernacres Nursery - Set in natural bush with a large variety of tree, ground and epiphytic ferns including extensive range of treefern carvings and Australian native species and hybrid epiphytic orchids.
  7. Zerius Vocoder - Free simple standalone vocoder for Windows, Mac and BeOS.
  8. Epiphytic Plant Research and Information Center - Information about the foundation, free newsletter and other resources, and an extensive photo gallery.
  9. Epiphytic Plant Research and Information Center - Information about the foundation's work, plants, photographs, and CDs.
  10. Rhizogoniaceae - Description of this family of mosses which are commonly epiphytic.
  11. Synth - A Java program that can be used to generate sounds.
  12. Synth - A Java program that can be used to generate sounds. You design the sound by putting together basic building blocks (generators): oscillators, envelopes, adders. Once the design is done, you instruct the program to generate the sound (which can take some time, depending on the complexity of the sound).
  13. Jim Hunter's Epiphyllum Universe - Dedicated to epiphytic cacti. Includes a vast amount of information about Epiphyllum care and feeding and offers some cuttings for sale.
  14. Hills Epicacti - Offers cuttings of epiphyllums and similar epiphytes by mail. Photograph gallery, cultivation advice, and ordering information.
  15. Characiopsis naegelii - Image of this species epiphytic on Daphnia, provided by AlgaeVision.
  16. Microcladia - This research project by Nina Curley provides much information on various aspects of this epiphytic genus of red algae.
  17. Aglaothamnion priceanum - Basic information on this species which usually grows on Laminaria hyperborea as an epiphyte, also classified as Callithamnion decompositum.
  18. Polysiphonia lanosa - Photograph and basic information on this species which lives as an epiphyte on the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.
  19. Ascophyllum nodosum - Information on this species including its description, general biology, taxonomy and reproduction, and a photograph that also shows the epiphytic alga, Polysiphonia lanosa.
  20. Variation in Mycorrhizal Performance in the Epiphytic Orchid, Tolumnia variegata - Abstract discussing whether different mycorrhizal fungi (Ceratobasidium spp.) differ in their ability to stimulate seed germination in orchids.


  21. [ Link Deletion Request ]



    Epiphyte


    Near Orosí, Costa Rica
    A clinging root of an orchid.

    An epiphyte is a plant that grows non-parasitically upon another plant (such as a tree), and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it instead of the structure it is fastened to. An epiphytic organism that is not a plant is not called an epiphyte.[1] Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone (e.g., many mosses, liverworts, lichens, and algae) or in the tropics (e.g., many ferns, cacti, orchids, and bromeliads).[2] Epiphytes provide a rich and diverse habitat for other organisms including animals, fungi, bacteria, and myxomycetes.[3]

    Epiphyte is one of the subdivisions of the Raunkiær system.

    An epiphytic bromeliad

    The term epiphytic derives from the Greek epi- (meaning 'upon') and phyton (meaning 'plant'). Epiphytic plants are sometimes called "air plants" because they do not root in soil. However, there are many aquatic species of algae, including seaweeds, that are epiphytes on other aquatic plants (seaweeds or aquatic angiosperms).

    The best-known epiphytic plants include mosses, orchids, and bromeliads such as Spanish moss (of the genus Tillandsia), but epiphytes may be found in every major group of the plant kingdom. 89% of epiphyte species (about 24,000) are flowering plants. The second largest group are the leptosporangiate ferns, with about 2800 species (10% of epiphytes). In fact, about one third of all ferns are epiphytes.[4] The third largest group is clubmosses, with 190 species, followed by a handful of species in each of the spikemosses, other ferns, Gnetales, and cycads.[5]


    Epiphytic Physiognomy


    Epiphytes on a tree near Santa Elena in Costa Rica

    Epiphytic organisms usually derive only physical support and not nutrition from their host, though they may sometimes damage the host. Parasitic and semiparasitic plants growing on other plants (mistletoe is well known) are not "true" epiphytes (a designation usually given to fully autotrophic epiphytes), but are still epiphytic in habit. Plants such as New Zealand species of Griselinia -- which send long roots down towards the soil while fixed high in another plant and reliant upon it for physical support -- are also epiphytic in habit.

    Some epiphytic plants are large trees that begin their lives high in the forest canopy. Over decades they send roots down the trunk of a host tree eventually overpowering and replacing it. The strangler fig and the northern rātā (Metrosideros robusta.) of New Zealand are examples of this. Epiphytes that end up as free standing trees are also called hemiepiphytes.


    Epiphytic Nutrition


    Epiphytic plants use photosynthesis for energy and (where non-aquatic) obtain moisture from the air or from dampness (rain and cloud moisture) on the surface of their hosts. Roots may develop primarily for attachment, and specialized structures (for example, cups and scales) may be used to collect or hold moisture.


    Epiphytic Ecology


    The first important monograph on epiphytic plant ecology was written by A.F.W. Schimper (Die Epiphytische Vegetation Amerikas, 1888). Assemblages of large epiphytes occur most abundantly in moist tropical forests, but mosses and lichens occur as epiphytes in almost all biomes. In Europe there are no dedicated epiphytic plants using roots, but rich assemblages of mosses and lichens grow on trees in damp areas (mainly the western coastal fringe), and the common polypody fern grows epiphytically along branches. Rarely, grass, small bushes or small trees may grow in suspended soils up trees (typically in a rot-hole).

    Epiphytic plants attached to their hosts high in the canopy have an advantage over herbs restricted to the ground where there is less light and herbivores may be more active. Epiphytic plants are also important to certain animals that may live in their water reservoirs, such as some types of frogs and arthropods.

    Epiphytes can have a significant effect on the microenvironment of their host, and of ecosystems where they are abundant, as they hold water in the canopy and decrease water input to the soil.[6] The epiphytes create a significantly cooler and moister environment in the host plant canopy, potentially greatly reducing water loss by the host through transpiration.



    Epiphytic See also



    Epiphytic References


    1. ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press. 
    2. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. (1976). Vol. I, p. 764. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Chicago.
    3. ^ Sydney E. Everhart, Joseph S. Ely, and Harold W. Keller (2009). "Evaluation of tree canopy epiphytes and bark characteristics associated with the presence of corticolous myxomycetes". Botany 87: 509–517. 
    4. ^ Hogan, C Michael, 2010. Fern. Encyclopedia of Earth. National council for Science and the Environment. Washington, DC
    5. ^ Schuettpelz, Eric (2007), The evolution and diversification of epiphytic ferns, Duke University PhD thesis 
    6. ^ Stanton, D.E., Chávez, J. H., Villegas, L., Villasante, F., Armesto, J., Hedin, L. O., Horn, H. "Epiphytes Improve Host Plant Water Use by Microenvironment Modification", Functional Ecology (journal), doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12249

    Epiphytic External links




    Epiphytes Plants Epifight Plant Epiphytes Definition Epiphytic Orchids Epiphytic Cacti Epiphytic Bromeliads Epiphytic Algae Epiphytic Succulents

    | Epiphytes Plants | Epifight Plant | Epiphytes Definition | Epiphytic Orchids | Epiphytic Cacti | Epiphytic Bromeliads | Epiphytic Algae | Epiphytic Succulents | Epiphytic | Epiphytic_fungus | Hemi-epiphytic | Epiphytic_houseplants | Velamen | Catasetum | Disocactus | Lobaria_pulmonaria | Moonlight_cactus | Billbergia_nutans | Coryanthes | Sophronitis | Pleione_(orchid) | Catopsis_berteroniana | Columnea | Renanthera | Hatiora_gaertneri | Myrmecodia | Cyrtopodium | Utricularia_mannii | Asplenium_australasicum | Guarianthe | Huntleya | Hatiora | Houlletia | Podochilus | Ascoglossum | Tmesipteris_tannensis | Epidendrum_ibaguense | Oncophyllum_globuliforme | Luisia | Winika | Colura | Laelia_albida | Abdominea | Restrepia_antennifera | Rossioglossum_grande | Lepismium | Capanea | Amyema_miquelii | Psilotum_complanatum | Brassavola_flagellaris | Coilostylis_parkinsoniana | Hydnophytum | Masdevallia_goliath | Scaphyglottis_atwoodii | Disocactus_ackermannii | Dendrobium_cuthbertsonii | Dendrochilum_cobbianum | Masdevallia_ionocharis

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    Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epiphytic aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Epiphytic&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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