IMMUNOGLOBULIN M

High Immunoglobulin M Levels Low Immunoglobulin M Levels High Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum Low Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Treatment Immunoglobulin M IgM Deficiency Immunoglobulin M IgM Primary Immunoglobulin Deficiency




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| High Immunoglobulin M Levels | Low Immunoglobulin M Levels | High Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum | Low Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum | Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Treatment | Immunoglobulin M IgM Deficiency | Immunoglobulin M IgM | Primary Immunoglobulin Deficiency |

| Immunoglobulin_M | Isolated_primary_immunoglobulin_M_deficiency | Immunodeficiency_with_increased_immunoglobulin_M | Immunodeficiency_with_hyper-immunoglobulin_M | X-linked_hyper-immunoglobulin_M_syndrome | Immunoglobulin_G | Immunoglobulin_A | Immunoglobulin_E | Immunoglobulin_D | Immunoglobulin | Polymeric_immunoglobulin_receptor | Nephelometry_(medicine) | Macroglobulinemia | Raji_cell | List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.124) | List_of_medical_abbreviations:_I | IGHM | IGJ | J_chain |

  1. Mg Biologics - Producer and distributor of equine plasma, immunoglobulins and testing kits. Includes research profile and testimonials. Ames, Iowa, USA.
  2. Kent Laboratories - Specicalizes in the production of polyclonal antibodies, radial immunodiffusion kits, and conjugated immunoglobulin fractions for manufacturers, universities and laboratories. Has a veterinary division. Based in Redmond, WA
  3. Antibody Patterns - Educational material for laboratory scientists, medical establishment and students. Provides genuine images produced with IgG immunoglobulin from patients with autoimmune disorders.
  4. The Binding Site - Products include autoimmune, MMP, immunoglobulins, serum proteins, and animal reagents.
  5. The Binding Site - Products include autoimmune, MMP, immunoglobulins, serum proteins, and animal reagents.
  6. Biologics Consulting Group, LLC. - Offers regulatory advice for manufacturers of vaccines, bacterial and viral products, gene and cell therapies, monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulins. Includes regulatory library, related links, list of services, staff, with worldwide contacts and base in Alexandria, Virginia.  
  7. Pathogénie de la maladie de Berger - Revue Médecine/Sciences : article sur les implication des immunoglobulines A et de leurs récepteurs.
  8. ID Care, Inc. - Board Certified infectious diseases group providing patient care and consultation for infectious diseases including tropical and parasitic diseases, meningitis, and immunoglobulin deficiencies.
  9. Immunogenetics Database - Collection of integrated resources specializing in immunoglobulins, T cell receptors and the major histocompatibility complex in vertebrate species. Consists of sequence, structural and genome databases, maintained at EBI, UK.
  10. Mike's Immunoglobulin Structure and Function - Molecular images, history of monoclonal antibodies, activity related to sequence, and humanisation for therapy. Includes information on the maintainer and his research group at Cambridge, UK.
  11. Pluckthun, Andreas - Laboratory concentrating on protein engineering and directed molecular evolution, especially of immunoglobulins. Includes PDFs of molecular structures, publications since 1985, and contacts at the University of Zurich in Switzerland.
  12. Good Biotech Corporation - Manufacturer of duck egg yolk polyclonal antibody, offering immunoglobulin Fc, markers for cardiovascular and coronary heart disease and clinical diagnostics, from Taiwan.
  13. Farma Tek - İthal ettiği hemofili ürünleri, yoğun bakım ürünleri ve immunoglobulin grubu ile dermatoloji, kardiyoloji ve cerrahi alanındaki ürünlerin satışı yapılmaktadır.
  14. Centre de référence des amyloses primitives - S'occupe de l'amylose al et dautre maladie de dépôt d'immunoglobuline monoclonale. Limoges, Haute-Vienne (87), France.


  15. [ Link Deletion Request ]

    immunoglobulin m deficiency immunoglobulin m elevation high immunoglobulin m elevated immunoglobulin m immunoglobulin m qn serum immunoglobulin m structure low immunoglobulin m immunoglobulin m levels



    Immunoglobulin M


    IgM (Immunoglobulin M) antibody molecule consisting of 5 base units.
    1: Base unit.
    2: Heavy chains.
    3: Light chains.
    4: J chain.
    5: Intermolecular disulfide bonds.
    IgM scheme. Heavy chains are blue; light chains are yellow.

    Immunoglobulin M, or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is produced by B cells. IgM is by far the physically largest antibody in the human circulatory system. It is the first antibody to appear in response to initial exposure to antigen.[1] The spleen is the major site of specific IgM production. [2]


    Immunoglobulin M Structure and function


    IgM forms polymers where multiple immunoglobulins are covalently linked together with disulfide bonds, mostly as a pentamer but also as a hexamer. IgM has a molecular mass of approximately 970 kDa (in its pentamer form). Because each monomer has two antigen binding sites, a pentameric IgM has 10 binding sites. Typically, however, IgM cannot bind 10 antigens at the same time because the large size of most antigens hinders binding to nearby sites.

    The J chain is found in pentameric IgM but not in the hexameric form, perhaps due to space constraints in the hexameric complex. Pentameric IgM can also be made in the absence of J chain. At present, it is still uncertain what fraction of normal pentamer contains J chain, and to this extent it is also uncertain whether a J chain-containing pentamer contains one or more than one J chain. [3]

    Because IgM is a large molecule, it cannot diffuse well, and is found in the interstitium only in very low quantities. IgM is primarily found in serum; however, because of the J chain, it is also important as a secretory immunoglobulin.

    Due to its polymeric nature, IgM possesses high avidity, and is particularly effective at complement activation. By itself, IgM is an ineffective opsonin; however it contributes greatly to opsonization by activating complement and causing C3b to bind to the antigen.[4]


    Immunoglobulin M Expression


    In germline cells, the gene segment encoding the μ constant region of the heavy chain is positioned first among other constant region gene segments. For this reason, IgM is the first immunoglobulin expressed by mature B cells.

    It is also the first immunoglobulin expressed in the fetus (around 20 weeks) and phylogenetically the earliest antibody to develop.[5]


    Immunoglobulin M Clinical significance


    IgM antibodies appear early in the course of an infection and usually reappear, to a lesser extent, after further exposure. IgM antibodies do not pass across the human placenta (only isotype IgG).

    These two biological properties of IgM make it useful in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Demonstrating IgM antibodies in a patient's serum indicates recent infection, or in a neonate's serum indicates intrauterine infection (e.g. congenital rubella).

    The development of anti-donor IgM after organ transplantation is not associated with graft rejection but it may have a protective effect.[6]


    Immunoglobulin M Other points


    IgM in normal serum is often found to bind to specific antigens, even in the absence of prior immunization. For this reason IgM has sometimes been called a "natural antibody". This phenomenon is probably due to the high avidity of IgM that allow it to bind detectably even to weakly cross-reacting antigens that are naturally occurring. For example the IgM antibodies that bind to the red blood cell A and B antigens might be formed in early life as a result of exposure to A- and B-like substances that are present on bacteria or perhaps also on plant materials.

    IgM antibodies are mainly responsible for the clumping (agglutination) of red blood cells if the recipient of a blood transfusion receives blood that is not compatible with their blood type.

    IgM is more sensitive to denaturation by 2-mercaptoethanol than IgG. This technique was historically used to distinguish between these isotypes before specific anti-IgG and anti-IgM secondary antibodies for immunoassays became commercially available. Serum samples would be tested for reactivity with an antigen before or after 2-mercaptoethanol treatment to determine whether the activity was due to IgM or IgG.[citation needed]


    Immunoglobulin M See also



    Immunoglobulin M References


    1. ^ Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. "Immunoglobulin M." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Accessed on 12 Oct. 2007
    2. ^ http://www.jimmunol.org/content/186/2/1011.full ; Bailey & Love's Short Practice of Surgery, 25ed (Ch-62, pg-1102)
    3. Marc J. Shulman Structural and Functional Analysis of J Chain-Deficient IgM J. Immunol., Jun 1998; 160: 5979 - 5989.
    4. ^ Wellek, B.; Hahn, H., Opferkuch, W. (1 February 1976). "Opsonizing activities of IgG, IgM antibodies and the C3b inactivator-cleaved third component of complement in macrophage phagocytosis". Agents and Actions 6 (1–3): 260–262. doi:10.1007/BF01972219. PMID 941799. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
    5. ^ Review of Medical Physiology by William Francis Ganong
    6. ^ Charpak, Y; Nicoulet, I; Bléry, C (February 2004). "Protective anti-donor IgM production after crossmatch positive liver-kidney transplantation". Liver Transpl 10 (2): 315–319. doi:10.1002/lt.20062/pdf. PMID 1476287. 

    Immunoglobulin M External links




    High Immunoglobulin M Levels Low Immunoglobulin M Levels High Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum Low Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Treatment Immunoglobulin M IgM Deficiency Immunoglobulin M IgM Primary Immunoglobulin Deficiency

    | High Immunoglobulin M Levels | Low Immunoglobulin M Levels | High Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum | Low Immunoglobulin M Qn Serum | Immunoglobulin M Deficiency Treatment | Immunoglobulin M IgM Deficiency | Immunoglobulin M IgM | Primary Immunoglobulin Deficiency | Immunoglobulin_M | Isolated_primary_immunoglobulin_M_deficiency | Immunodeficiency_with_increased_immunoglobulin_M | Immunodeficiency_with_hyper-immunoglobulin_M | X-linked_hyper-immunoglobulin_M_syndrome | Immunoglobulin_G | Immunoglobulin_A | Immunoglobulin_E | Immunoglobulin_D | Immunoglobulin | Polymeric_immunoglobulin_receptor | Nephelometry_(medicine) | Macroglobulinemia | Raji_cell | List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.124) | List_of_medical_abbreviations:_I | IGHM | IGJ | J_chain

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    Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunoglobulin_M aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Immunoglobulin_M&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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