INDO-AUSTRALIAN PLATE

Indian|Australian Plate Indian Tectonic Plate Indo|Australian Plate Facts South American Plate Indo|Australian Plate Boundary Eurasian Plate Antarctic Plate African Plate




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indo australian plate movement indo-australian plate and the eurasian plate indo australian plate map eurasian plate and indo australian plate indo australian plate boundary facts about the indo australian plate indo australian plate tectonics indo australian plate size



Indo-Australian Plate


  The Indo-Australian plate, shown as divided between the Indian Plate and the Australian Plate

The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. It was formed by the fusion of Indian and Australian plates 43 million years ago.[1] Recent studies, and seismic events such as the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake, suggest that the Indo-Australian Plate may be in the process of breaking up into two separate plates due primarily to stresses induced by the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Eurasia along the Himalayas.[2] The eastern part (Australia) is moving northward at the rate of 5.6 cm per year while the western part (India) is moving only at the rate of 3.7 cm per year due to impediment by Himalayas. This differential movement is resulting in the compression of the plate near its center at Sumatra and a potential division into Indian and Australian Plates.[3][4][5] The two protoplates or subplates are generally referred to as the Indian Plate and the Australian Plate.

A third [6]


Indo-Australian Plate Origins


Depositional age of the [7]


Indo-Australian Plate Geographical extent


The Indian subcontinent, Meganesia (Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania), New Zealand, and New Caledonia are all fragments of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. Seafloor spreading separated these land masses from one another, but as the spreading centers became inactive the land masses fused into a single plate.

Recent[when?] GPS measurement[by whom?] in Australia confirms the plate’s velocity of 67 mm/yr at 35 degrees east of north . Note also the same directions and velocities for points at Auckland, Christmas Island and southern India. A slight difference in local direction at Auckland is presumed due to a slight buckling of the plate there, where it is being compressed by the Pacific Plate.

The northeasterly side is a complex but generally convergent boundary with the Pacific Plate. The Pacific Plate is subducting under the Australian Plate, which forms the Tonga and Kermadec Trenches, and the parallel Tonga and Kermadec island arcs. It has also uplifted the eastern parts of New Zealand's North Island.

The continent of Zealandia, which separated from Australia 85 million years ago and stretches from New Caledonia in the north to New Zealand’s subantarctic islands in the south, is now being torn apart along the transform boundary marked by the Alpine Fault.

South of New Zealand the boundary becomes a transitional transform-convergent boundary, the Macquarie Fault Zone, where the Australian Plate is beginning to subduct under the Pacific Plate along the Puysegur Trench. Extending southwest of this trench is the Macquarie Ridge.

The southerly side is a divergent boundary with the Antarctic Plate called the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The westerly side is a transform boundary with the Arabian Plate called the Owen Fracture Zone, and a divergent boundary with the African Plate called the Central Indian Ridge (CIR). The northerly side of the Indo-Australian Plate is a convergent boundary with the Eurasian Plate forming the Himalaya and Hindu Kush mountains.

The northwest side of the Indo-Australian plate forms a subducting boundary with the Eurasian plate on the borders of the Indian Ocean from Bangladesh, to Myanmar to the south-west of Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java.

The subducting boundary through Indonesia is not parallel to the biogeographical Wallace line that separates the indigenous fauna of Asia from that of Australasia. The Eastern islands of Indonesia lie mainly on the Eurasian Plate, but have Australasian-related fauna and flora. Southeasterly lies the Sunda Shelf.


Indo-Australian Plate References




Indian|Australian Plate Indian Tectonic Plate Indo|Australian Plate Facts South American Plate Indo|Australian Plate Boundary Eurasian Plate Antarctic Plate African Plate

| Indian-Australian Plate | Indian Tectonic Plate | Indo-Australian Plate Facts | South American Plate | Indo-Australian Plate Boundary | Eurasian Plate | Antarctic Plate | African Plate | Indo-Australian_Plate | Alpine_Fault | Eurasian_Plate | New_Zealand | Indian_Plate | African_Plate | Tonga_Trench | Australasia | Pacific_Plate | Australia | East_Australia_hotspot | Madagascar_Plate | Banda_Sea_Triple_Junction | Southeast_Indian_Plate | Chaman_Fault | Central_Indian_Ridge | New_Guinea | List_of_volcanoes_in_Indonesia | Arabian_Plate | Hotspot_(geology) | Wairarapa_Fault | Awatere_Fault | List_of_tectonic_plates | Sunda_Plate | Australian_continent | Banda_Sea | New_Hebrides_Plate | 2005_Sumatra_earthquake | Tibetan_Plateau | Antarctic_Plate | Kermadec-Tonga_Subduction_Zone | Louisville_seamount_chain | Wellington_Fault | Shaky_Isles | Yakutat_Block | May_2010_Northern_Sumatra_earthquake | Volcanology_of_Indonesia | Tectonics_zones_of_Pakistan | Island_arc | Owen_Fracture_Zone | Gondwana | 2012_Indian_Ocean_earthquakes | Macquarie_Fault_Zone | Santa_Cruz_Islands | Hunter-Bowen_orogeny | 1929_Murchison_earthquake | Barat_Daya_Islands | 1797_Sumatra_earthquake | 1932_Changma_earthquake | 2009_West_Java_earthquake

Copyright:
Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Australian_Plate aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indo-Australian_Plate&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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