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Jewish Autonomous Oblast

Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Еврейская автономная область (Russian)
—  Autonomous oblast  —


Coat of arms
Coordinates: 48°36′N 132°12′E / 48.600°N 132.200°E / 48.600; 132.200Coordinates: 48°36′N 132°12′E / 48.600°N 132.200°E / 48.600; 132.200
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Far Eastern[1]
Economic region Far Eastern[2]
Established May 7, 1934[3]
Administrative center Birobidzhan
Government (as of September 2010)
 - Governor[4] Alexander Vinnikov[5]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[6]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7]
 - Total 36,000 km2 (13,899.7 sq mi)
Area rank 61st
Population (2010 Census)[8]
 - Total 176,558
 - Rank 80th
 - Density[9] 4.9 /km2 (13 /sq mi)
 - Urban 67.6%
 - Rural 32.4%
Time zone(s) VLAT (UTC+11:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2 RU-YEV
License plates 79
Official languages Russian[11]
Official website

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; Yiddish: ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט; yidishe avtonome gegnt[12]) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) situated in the Russian Far East, bordering with Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and Heilongjiang province of China. It is also referred to as "Yevrey" [13] (Yiddish: יעװרײ) and "Birobidzhan"[14] (Yiddish: ביראבידזשאן). Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 176,558.[8]

Soviet authorities established the autonomous oblast in 1934. It was the result of Joseph Stalin's nationality policy, which provided the Jewish population of the Soviet Union with a large territory in which to pursue Yiddish cultural heritage.[15] According to the 1939 population census, 17,695 Jews lived in the region (16% of the total population). The Jewish population peaked in 1948 at around 30,000, about one-quarter of the region's population.[16]

In 1953 Joseph Stalin died and thereafter the Jewish population in the JAO began a long decline. The census of 1959, revealed that the Jewish population of the JAO had declined by approximately 50%, down to 14,269 persons.[17] In 2002, there were 2,327 people of Jewish descent living in the JAO (1.2% of the total population), while ethnic Russians made up 90% of the JAO population. By 2010, according to data provided by the Russian Census Bureau, there were only 1,628 people of Jewish descent remaining in the JAO (1% of the total population), while ethnic Russians made up 92.7% of the JAO population.[18]

The 2010 Russian Census Bureau data was however, disputed in a recent article of the Jerusalem Post claiming that in 2007 approximately 4,000 Jews remain in the JAO.[19] According to Rabbi Mordechai Scheiner, Judaism and the Jewish culture have recently begun enjoying a religious and cultural resurgence in the JAO.[20] However according to the magazine of the Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS Lechaim currently the Jewish presence in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast is extremely small and is limited to the city of Birobidzhan and the nearby village of Valdgeym.[21]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Climate

The territory has a monsoonal/anti-cyclonic climate, with warm, wet, humid summers due to the influence of the East Asian monsoon; and cold, dry, windy conditions prevailing in the winter months courtesy of the Siberian high-pressure system.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Administrative divisions

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Demographics

Population: 176,558 (2010 Census);[8] 190,915 (2002 Census);[22] 215,937 (1989 Census).[23]

The 2010 Census reported the largest group to be the 160,185 ethnic Russians (92.7%), followed by 4,871 ethnic Ukrainians (2.8%), and 1,628 ethnic Jews (1%).[8] Additionally, 3,832 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[24]

Vital statistics for 2008:

  • Births: 2,582 (13.9 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 2,851 (15.4 per 1000)[25]
Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 2 445 (14.0 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 2 636 (15.1 per 1000) [26]

Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.67 | 2010 - 1.67 | 2011 - 1.79 |[27] 2012 - 1.79(e)

Note: Data for Total fertility rate (2012) is estimate based on age and sex structure of Jewish Autonomous Oblast at the beginning of 2012, number of births in 2012 and fertility structure in previous years.[28]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Religion

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Jewish Autonomous Oblast (2012)[29][30]

  Russian Orthodox (22.6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (9%)
  Other Orthodox (6%)
  Spiritual but not religious (35%)
  Atheist (22%)
  Other or undeclared (5.4%)

According to a 2012 official survey[29] 22.6% of the population of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% are unaffiliated generic Christians, and 6% adheres to other Orthodox Churches. Judaism is practiced by 0.2% of the population. In addition, 35% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 22% is atheist, and 5.2% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[29]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast History

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Military colonization and the advent of the Trans-Siberian Railway

The northern bank of the Amur, including the territory of today's Jewish Autonomous Oblast, became incorporated into the Russian Empire pursuant to the treaties of Aigun and Peking of 1858-1860 (see Amur Annexation).

In December 1858 the Russian government authorized formation of the Komarov - promoted the development of the new territories. Their achievements produced the first detailed "map of the Amur land".

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast with the administrative center of Birobidzhan marked

Construction began in 1898 on the vague]. The economy declined, though it was recovering in 1926 and 1927.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Jewish settlement and development in the region

On March 28, 1928, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for Komzet of free territory near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews." The decree meant "a possibility of establishment of a Jewish administrative territorial unit on the territory of the called region".[31] In the future, based on JAO was supposed to create a Jewish republic (as a place of compact residence of the Jews of the USSR), but this plan was never implemented.[32]

On August 20, 1930 the General Executive Committee of RSFSR accepted the decree "On formation of the Birobidzhan national region in the structure of the Far Eastern Territory". The State Planning Committee considered the Birobidzhan national region as a separate economic unit. In 1932 the first scheduled figures of the region development were considered and authorized.[by whom?][31] The Organization for Jewish Colonisation in the Soviet Union, a Jewish Communist organization in North America, successfully encouraged the immigration of some US residents, such as the family of George Koval, which arrived in 1932.[33]

Statue of settlers on the railway station in Birobidzhan.

On May 7, 1934, the Presidium of the General Executive Committee accepted the decree on its transformation into the Jewish Autonomous Region within the Russian Federation. In 1938, with formation of the Khabarovsk Territory, the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAR) was included in its structure.[31]

According to Joseph Stalin's national policy, each of the national groups that formed the Soviet Union would receive a territory in which to pursue cultural autonomy in a socialist framework. In that sense, it also responded to two supposed threats to the Soviet state:

  1. Judaism, which ran counter to official state policy of atheism
  2. Zionism — the advocacy of a Jewish national state in Palestine — which countered Soviet views of nationalism.

The Soviets envisaged setting up a new "Soviet Zion", where a proletarian Jewish culture could be developed. Yiddish, rather than Hebrew, would be the national language, and a new socialist literature and arts would replace religion as the primary expression of culture.

Stalin's theory on the National Question regarded a group as a nation only if it had a territory, and since there was no Jewish territory, per se, the Jews were not a nation and did not have national rights. Jewish Communists argued that the way to solve this ideological dilemma was by creating a Jewish territory, hence the ideological motivation for the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Politically, it was also considered desirable to create a Soviet Jewish homeland as an ideological alternative to Zionism and the theory put forward by Socialist Zionists such as Ber Borochov that the Jewish Question could be resolved by creating a Jewish territory in Palestine. Thus Birobidzhan was important for propaganda purposes as an argument against Zionism which was a rival ideology to Marxism among left-wing Jews.

Another important goal of the Birobidzhan project involved increasing settlement in the remote Soviet Far East, especially along the vulnerable border with China. In 1928, there was virtually no settlement in the area, while Jews had deep roots in the western half of the Soviet Union, in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia proper. In fact, there had initially been proposals to create a Jewish Soviet Republic in the Crimea or in part of Ukraine but these were rejected because of fears of antagonizing non-Jews in those regions.

Momument of Jewish writer Sholem Aleichem in Birobidzhan.

Birobidzhan had a harsh geography and climate: the landscape largely swampland, and any new settlers would have to build their lives from scratch.

By the 1930s, a massive propaganda campaign developed to induce more Jewish settlers to move there. The campaign partly incorporated the standard Soviet propaganda tools of the era and included posters and Yiddish-language novels describing a socialist utopia there. Other methods bordered on the bizarre. In one instance, leaflets promoting Birobidzhan were dropped from an airplane over a Jewish neighborhood in Belarus. In another instance, a government-produced Yiddish film called Seekers of Happiness told the story of a Jewish family that fled the Great Depression in the United States to make a new life for itself in Birobidzhan.

As the Jewish population grew, so did the impact of Yiddish culture on the region. Settlers established a Yiddish newspaper, the Birobidzhaner Shtern (Russian: Биробиджанер Штерн; Yiddish: ביראָבידזשאַנער שטערן, "Star of Birobidzhan"); a theater troupe was created; and streets being built in the new city were named after prominent Yiddish authors such as Sholom Aleichem and Y. L. Peretz. The Yiddish language was deliberately bolstered as a basis for efforts to secularize the Jewish population and, despite the general curtailment of this action as described immediately below, the Birobidzhaner Shtern continues to publish a section in Yiddish.[34]

Sign on the JAO government headquarters.

Valdgeym, a Jewish settlement within the Jewish Autonomous Oblast,[35] dates from 1928 and formed the first collective farm established in the oblast.[36] In 1980 a Yiddish school was opened in the settlement.[37] Amurzet also has a history of Jewish settlement in the JAO.[38][39] For the period 1929 through 1939, this village was the center of Jewish settlement south of Birobidzhan.[40] The present day Jewish community members hold Kabalat Shabbat ceremonies and gatherings that feature songs in Yiddish, Jewish cuisine, and broad information presenting historical facts on Jewish culture. Many descendants of the founders of this settlement, which was established just after the turn of the 20th century, have left their native village. Those who remained in Amurzet, especially those having relatives in Israel, are learning about the traditions and roots of the Jewish people.[41] The population of Amurzet, as estimated in late 2006, is 5,213.[42] Smidovich is another early Jewish settlement in the JAO.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast World War II era (1930s and 1940s)

The peak of its Jewish population reached JAO in 1937 - 20 thousand,[32] and then continuously decreased.

The Birobidzhan experiment ground to a halt in the mid-1930s, during Stalin's first campaign of purges. Soviet authorities arrested and executed Jewish leaders, and Yiddish schools were shut down. Shortly after this, World War II brought an abrupt end to concerted efforts to bring Jews east.

After the war ended in 1945 the idea of Birobidzhan as a potential home for Jewish refugees revived slightly.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Events since 1991

A giant menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan

In 1991 the Jewish Autonomous Oblast moved from the jurisdiction of Khabarovsk Krai to the jurisdiction of the Federation, but by that time most of the Jews had gone and the remaining Jews now constituted fewer than two percent of the local population. Nevertheless, Yiddish is once again taught in the schools, a Yiddish radio station is in operation, and, as noted above, the Birobidzhaner Shtern includes a section in Yiddish.


There is a proposal to merge JAO with Khabarovsk Krai.[44][45] Another suggestion was to merge it with Amur Oblast to form the Amur region.[45] The proposals caused many objections from amongst local JAO groups and residents, and also protests in the Jewish community of Russia.[46] The presidential envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District Viktor Ishayev advocated merging JAO into Khabarovsk Krai,[45] but believed the merger is currently premature.[47][48] Some have projected that the JAO may soon become the wealthiest oblast in the region. Amongst the citizens of the JAO, there is nearly uniform opposition to such a merger, yet neighboring oblasts more generally support the prospect of such a merger .[49]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Education

The Birobidzhan Jewish National University works in cooperation with the local Jewish community of Birobidzhan. The university, uniquely in the Russian Far East and the Far East as a whole, uses as the basis of its teaching the study of the Hebrew language, history and classic Jewish texts.[50]

In recent years, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast has grown interested in its Jewish roots. Students study Hebrew and Yiddish at a Jewish school and at the Birobidzhan Jewish National University. In 1989, the Jewish center founded its Sunday school, where children study Yiddish, learn Jewish folk dances, and memorize dates from the history of Israel. The Israeli government helps fund the program.[51]

Birobidzhan has several state-run schools that teach Yiddish, a Yiddish school for religious instruction and a kindergarten. The five- to seven year-olds spend two lessons a week learning to speak Yiddish, as well as being taught Jewish songs, dance, and traditions.[52] Today, the city’s fourteen public schools must teach Yiddish and Jewish tradition. The school Menora was created in 1991. It is a public school that offers a half-day Yiddish and Jewish curriculum for those parents who choose it. About half the school’s 120 pupils are enrolled in the Yiddish course. Many of them continue on to Public School No. 2, which offers the same half-day Yiddish/Jewish curriculum from first through twelfth grades. Yiddish also is offered at Birobidzhan’s Pedagogical Institute, one of the few university-level Yiddish courses in the country.[53]

In 2007 Yiddish studies professor [54]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Economy

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is part of the Far Eastern Economic Region; it has well-developed industry and agriculture and a dense transportation network. Its status as a free economic zone increases the opportunities for economic development. The oblast's rich mineral and building and finishing material resources are in great demand on the Russian market. Nonferrous metallurgy, engineering, metalworking, and the building material, forest, woodworking, light, and food industries are the most highly developed industrial sectors.[55]

Agriculture is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast's main economic sector owing to fertile soils and a moist climate.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Transportation

The region's well-developed transportation network consists of 530 km of railways, including the Trans-Siberian Railway; 600 km of waterways along the Amur and Tunguska rivers; and 1900 km of roads, including 1600 km of paved roads. The most important road is the Khabarovsk-Birobidzhan-Obluchye-Amur Region highway with ferry service across the Amur. The Zhelty Yar airport located in the center of the region connects Birobidzhan with Khabarovsk and outlying district centers. There are also plans to establish international air service between Birobidzhan and Jiamusi in China.[55]

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Amur Bridge Project

In 2007, Russian mining interests, in consortium with the Chinese government, announced the possibility of the construction of a rail-bridge link between the two countries across the Amur River at Nizhneleninskoye. In the years since the initial proposal for the bridge, various proposed construction start dates have been first announced, and then postponed/ discarded. The bridge would link Nizhneleninskoye in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast with Tongjiang in Heilongjiang Province.[56] The 2,197-meter-long bridge would require an estimated investment of nearly US$230 million, Gurevich said.[57] As of 2013, construction on the project had not yet begun.

Jewish Autonomous Oblast See also

Jewish Autonomous Oblast References

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Charter, Article 4
  4. ^ Charter, Article 22
  5. ^ Official website of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Biography of Alexander Aronovich Vinnikov
  6. ^ Charter, Article 15
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  9. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ In standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe oytonome gegnt
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ "The National and State Structure". USSR '86 Yearbook. Novosti Press Agency. 1986. 
  16. ^ James Brook, Birobidzhan Journal;A Promised Land in Siberia? Well, Thanks, but . . ., The New York Times, July 11, 1996
  17. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по регионам России". «Демоскоп». Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  18. ^ "Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  19. ^ Yiddish returns to Birobidzhan
  20. ^ Yiddish returns to Birobidzhan
  21. ^ журнал «Лехаим». Борис Котлерман. Биробиджан, или ЕврейскаЯ автономнаЯ область?
  22. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  23. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  25. ^[dead link]
  26. ^ "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ "БГД". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  29. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia.
  30. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  31. ^ a b c Establishment and Development of the JAR Jewish Autonomous Region official government website. Accessed 2007-08-30.
  32. ^ a b А. И. Солженицын. Двести лет вместе
  33. ^ Michael Walsh George Koval: Atomic Spy Unmasked Smithsonian (magazine) May 2009
  34. ^ "Birobidzhaner Shtern in Yiddish". Retrieved 30 August 2010. [dead link]
  35. ^ "Jewish Autonomous Oblast". Travel East Russia. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  36. ^ "Stalin's forgotten Zion: the harsh realities of Birobidzhan". Swarthmore. 
  37. ^ Pinkus, Benjamin (1990). "The Post-Stalin period, 1953–83". The Jews of the Soviet Union: the History of a national minority. Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-521-38926-6. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  38. ^ "Amurzet, Russia map". Travel Post. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  39. ^ "Festive Mood Mounts For Jews In Russia's Far East". Birobidjan, Russia: The Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS. 24 November 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  40. ^ "A Jew Receives State Award in Jewish Autonomous Republic". Birobidjan, RU: The Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  41. ^ "Remote Far East Village Mobilizes for Purim". Birobidjan, Russia: The Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS. 10 March 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  42. ^ "Population of Amurzet". 
  43. ^ "L'Chayim, Comrade Stalin!". Internet Movie Database., Inc. 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011. 
  44. ^ ""Полит-НН.Ру". Парад объединений" (in (Russian)). Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  45. ^ a b c 20:30. "Интервью газете "Ведомости". Виктор Ишаев предлагает объединить Хабаровский край с Амурской областью, ЕАО и Сахалином". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  46. ^ "Открытая электронная газета "". Еврейская общественность возражает против упразднения Еврейской автономной области". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  47. ^ "Новотека. Полпред президента назвал преждевременным присоединение Еврейской автономии к Хабаровскому краю". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  48. ^ "Новости Хабаровска. ДВ регионам не грозит объединение". Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  49. ^ Руководители районов области не видят смысла в объединении ЕАО и Хабаровского края
  50. ^ "39 registered religious organizations are operating in the region in 2007, December 1". Birobidzhan, RU: Jewish Autonomous Region official government website. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  51. ^ Working, Russell (14 January 2000). "Jewish oblast retains identity despite emigration". Birobidzhan, Russia: Vladivostok News. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  52. ^ Steen, Michael (2000-01-12). "Soviet-era Jewish homeland struggles on". Kulanu. Reuters. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  53. ^ Fishkoff, Sue (2004-09-16). "In Stalin’s ex-Jewish homeland, it’s think Yiddish and act Yiddish". Birobidzhan, Russia: NCSJ. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  54. ^ "The 2nd Birobidzhan International Summer Yiddish Program". 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  55. ^ a b "Jewish Autonomous Region". Kommersant Moscow. Kommersant. Publishing House. March 5, 2004. Retrieved December 22, 2011. 
  56. ^ Jia, Bian (2007-06-19). "Proposed bridge to boost bilateral trade". China Daily. p. 20. 
  57. ^ Dong, Bei (2007-06-18). "China-Russia Trade to Top US$40b". Peking, CN: China Daily. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Sources

  • №40-ОЗ 8 октября 1997 г. «Устав Еврейской автономной области (в ред. 7 ноября 2008 г.)», в ред. Закона №543-ОЗ от 29 апреля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 17 Устава Еврейской автономной области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Биробиджанская звезда", №125 (15577), 4 ноября 1997 г. (#40-OZ October 8, 1997 Charter of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, as amended by the Law #543-OZ of April 29, 2009 On Amending Article 17 of the Charter of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).

Jewish Autonomous Oblast Bibliography

Jewish Autonomous Oblast External links

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