| Juu_languages | Khoekhoe_language | Yeyi_language | Kwadi_language | Northern_Juu | Heptagraph | Palatal_clicks | Multigraph_(orthography) | North-Central_Juu | Khoe_languages | Ju_language | Khoisan_languages | Southeastern_Juu | Yeke_Juu_League | Retroflex_consonant | Tuu_languages | ISO_639:juu | Guttural_languages | List_of_Fruits_Basket_episodes | Monduli_Juu | ISO_639:j | Monduli_District | Harvey_Lainson | Inner_Mongolia | Bible_translations_into_Athabaskan_languages | Nobiin_language | Kharchin_Mongols | Juu_Hime | Retroflex_clicks | Lateral_consonant | Ndut_initiation_rite | Central_Juu | Mongolia_during_Qing_rule | Haplogroup_B-M60 | List_of_YuYu_Hakusho_chapters | Sallaans_dialect | Hiroki_Kikuta | Mongolian_Languages | Sami_national_anthem | Khalkha_Mongols | Carabao_discography | Beetle_in_the_Anthill | Noboru_Rokuda | Akio_Suyama |
|Northern Khoisan (obsolete)|
|Native to||Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa|
|Native speakers||14,000–18,000 (2013)|
oun – ǃʼOǃKung
mwj – Maligo
knw – ǀʼAkhwe
vaj – Vasekela
ktz – Juǀʼhoansi
aue – ǂKxʼauǁʼein
gfx – Mangetti Dune
!Kung // (!Xuun), also known as Ju, is a dialect continuum (language complex) spoken in Namibia, Botswana, and Angola by the !Kung people. Together with the ǂHoan language, it forms the proposed Kx'a language family. !Kung constituted one of the branches of the putative Khoisan language family, and was called Northern Khoisan in that scenario, but the unity of Khoisan has never been demonstrated and is suspected to be spurious. Nonetheless, the term "Khoisan" is widely retained as a convenience.
!Kung is famous for having a large number of clicks, such as the ǃ in its name, and has some of the most complex inventories of both consonants and vowels in the world. It also has tone. For a description, see Juǀʼhoansi. To pronounce !Xuun one makes a click sound before the x sound (which is like a Scottish or German ch), followed by a nasal u vowel.
Estimates vary, but there are perhaps 30–60 thousand speakers. There is much confusion with the names of Khoisan languages, with the result that dialects may be counted more than once; thus Ethnologue reports 6,000 speakers of ǃʼOǃKung, 7,000 of !Kung-Ekoka (|Akhwe), and over 60,000 speakers of "Vasekela Bushman", but then identifies Vasekela as ǃʼOǃKung and suggests that it may be the same as !Kung-Ekoka as well. In addition, they report 34,000 speakers of Juǀʼhoan, 7,000 of ǂKxʼauǁʼein, and 2,000 of Maligo, but do not give separate figures for the central dialects.
Until the mid–late twentieth century, the ǃʼOǃKung and Maligo dialects were widespread in southern and central Angola. However, most !Kung fled the civil war to Namibia (primarily to the Caprivi Strip) and to South Africa. Botswana hosts a minority of Juǀʼhoan speakers, but Namibia is today the center of the !Kung people and language.
The better-known !Kung dialects are Tsumkwe Juǀʼhoan, !Kung-Ekoka, ǃʼOǃKung, and ǂKxʼauǁʼein. Scholars distinguish between eleven and fifteen dialects, which may not be mutually intelligible when not adjacent, but there are no clear-cut distinctions between them at our present state of knowledge.
ǂKxʼauǁʼein is too poorly attested to assign a place within this classification; if it belongs to one of these four groups, it is presumably Southeastern.
Heine & Honken (2010) classify 11 varieties into three branches:
Ethnologue 16 assigns an iso code to "Vasekela Bushman", vaj, which has no clear identity and may be synonymous with !Kung as a whole. Many of the varieties listed for Haiǁom, which is a Khoe variety, appear to be Central and Southern !Kung. In 2011 an ISO code was added for Mangetti Dune,gfx which is said to be displaced Vasekela, to belong to the northern branch and to be closest to Ekoka.
The ancestral language, Proto-Juu or Proto-!Xuun, had five places of click articulation: Dental, alveolar, palatal, alveolar lateral, and retroflex (*ǃ˞ or *‼). The retroflex clicks have dropped out of Southeastern dialects such as Juǀʼhoan, but remain in Central !Kung. In ǀʼAkhwe (Ekoka), the palatal click has become a fricated alveolar.
|Proto-Juu||*ǃ 'belly'||*‼ 'water'||*ǂ|
|NW (Mangetti Dune)||ᶢǃű||ᶢǁű||ǂ|