KHEDIVATE OF EGYPT

Khedivate of Egypt




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Khedivate of Egypt


Khedivate of Egypt
الخديوية المصرية (Arabic)

خدیویت مصر (Ottoman Turkish)

Autonomous vassal of the Ottoman Empire
(under British occupation from 1882)

 

1867–1914
 

Red flag with three white crescents, each containing a five-pointed white star.
Flag (1867–81) Coat of arms
Anthem
Salam Affandina
Globe with modern borders highlighting the following:
  Khedivate of Egypt
  Ceded from Sudan to Italian North Africa in 1919
Capital Cairo
Languages Arabic, Ottoman Turkish, [a]
Religion Sunni Islam , Coptic Christianity
Government Constitutional monarchy
Khedive
 -  1867–1879 Isma'il Pasha
 -  1879–1892 Tewfik Pasha
 -  1892–1914 Abbas II
British Agent and Consul-General
 -  1883–1907 Earl of Cromer
 -  1907–1911 Sir Eldon Gorst
 -  1911–1914 Earl Kitchener
Prime minister
 -  1878–1879 Nubar Pasha (first)
 -  1914 Hussein Rushdi Pasha (last)
Historical era Scramble for Africa
 -  Established 8 June 1867
 -  Suez Canal opened 17 November 1869
 -  Urabi Revolt 1881–1882
 -  British invasion in the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War July – September 1882
 -  Sudan Convention 18 January 1899
 -  Disestablished 19 December 1914
Area
 -  1882[b] 34,184 km² (13,199 sq mi)
Population
 -  1882[b] est. 6,805,000 
     Density 199.1 /km²  (515.6 /sq mi)
 -  1897[b] est. 9,715,000 
     Density 284.2 /km²  (736.1 /sq mi)
 -  1907[b] est. 11,287,000 
     Density 330.2 /km²  (855.2 /sq mi)
Currency Egyptian pound
Today part of  Egypt
 Libya
 South Sudan
 Sudan
^ a. English became the sole official language in 1898.[1]

^ b. Area and density include inhabited areas only. The total area of Egypt, including deserts, is 994,000 km2.[2][3]

History of Egypt
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This article is part of a series
Prehistoric Egypt pre–3100 BC
Ancient Egypt
Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC
Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC
1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC
Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC
2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC
New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC
3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC
Late Period 664–332 BC
Classical Antiquity
Achaemenid Egypt 525–332 BC
Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC
Roman & Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD
Sassanid Egypt 621–629
Middle Ages
Arab Egypt 641–969
Fatimid Egypt 969–1171
Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250
Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517
Early Modern
Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867
French occupation 1798–1801
Egypt under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882
Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914
Modern Egypt
British occupation 1882–1953
Sultanate of Egypt 1914–1922
Kingdom of Egypt 1922–1953
Republic 1953–present
Egypt Egypt portal

The Khedivate of Egypt (Arabic: خديوية مصر‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [xedeˈwejjet ˈmɑsˤɾ]; Ottoman Turkish: خدیویت مصر Hıdiviyet-i Mısır) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.


Khedivate of Egypt History (1798–1867)



Khedivate of Egypt Rise of Muhammad Ali

Upon the conquest of the Sultanate of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, the country was governed as an Ottoman eyalet (province). The Porte was content to permit local rule to remain in the hands of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste of Circassian, and Turkic origin who had held power in Egypt since the 13th century. Save for military expeditions to crush Mamluk Egyptian uprisings seeking to re-establish the independent Egyptian sultanate, the Ottomans largely ignored Egyptian affairs until the France invasion of Egypt in 1798.

Between 1799 and 1801, the Ottoman Porte (government), working at times with France's main enemy, the United Kingdom, undertook various campaigns to restore Ottoman rule in Egypt. By August, 1801, the remaining French forces of General Jacques-François Menou withdrew from Egypt.

The period between 1801 and 1805 was, effectively, a three way civil war in Egypt between the Egyptian Mamluks, the Ottoman Turks, and troops the Ottoman Porte dispatched from Rumelia (the Empire's European province), under the command of Muhammad Ali Pasha, to restore the Empire's authority.

Following the defeat of the French, the Porte assigned Lower Egypt.

Amid these disturbances, Husrev Pasha attempted to disband his Albanian bashi-bazouks (soldiers) without pay. This led to rioting that drove Husrev Pasha from Cairo. During the ensuing turmoil, the Porte sent Muhammad Ali Pasha to Egypt.

However, Muhammad Ali seized control of Egypt, declaring himself ruler of Egypt and quickly consolidating an independent local powerbase. After repeated failed attempts to remove and kill him, in 1805, the Porte officially recognised Muhammad Ali as Wāli of Egypt. Demonstrating his grander ambitions, Muhammad Ali Pasha claimed for himself the higher title of Khedive (Viceroy), ruling the self-proclaimed (but not recognised) Khedivate of Egypt. He murdered the remaining Mamluk beys in 1811, solidifying his own control of Egypt. He is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms he instituted in the military, agricultural, economic and cultural spheres.


Khedivate of Egypt Reforms

During Muhammad Ali's absence in Arabia his representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation, begun in 1808, of almost all the lands belonging to private individuals, who were forced to accept instead inadequate pensions. By this revolutionary method of land nationalization Muhammad Ali became proprietor of nearly all the soil of Egypt, an iniquitous measure against which the Egyptians had no remedy.

The pasha also attempted to reorganize his troops on European lines, but this led to a formidable mutiny in Cairo. Muhammad Ali's life was endangered, and he sought refuge by night in the citadel, while the soldiery committed many acts of plunder. The revolt was reduced by presents to the chiefs of the insurgents, and Muhammad Ali ordered that the sufferers by the disturbances should receive compensation from the treasury. The project of the Nizam Gedid (New System) was, in consequence of this mutiny, abandoned for a time.

While Ibrahim was engaged in the second Arabian campaign the pasha turned his attention to strengthening the Egyptian economy. He created state monopolies over the chief products of the country. He set up a number of factories and began digging in 1819 a new canal to Alexandria, called the Mahmudiya (after the reigning sultan of Turkey). The old canal had long fallen into decay, and the necessity of a safe channel between Alexandria and the Nile was much felt. The conclusion in 1838 of a commercial treaty with Turkey, negotiated by Sir Henry Bulwer (Lord Darling), struck a deathblow to the system of monopolies, though the application of the treaty to Egypt was delayed for some years.

Another notable fact in the economic progress of the country was the development of the cultivation of Maho Bey, and the organization of the new industry from which in a few years Muhammad Ali was enabled to extract considerable revenues.

Efforts were made to promote education and the study of medicine. To European merchants, on whom he was dependent for the sale of his exports, Muhammad Ali showed much favor, and under his influence the port of Alexandria again rose into importance. It was also under Muhammad Ali's encouragement that the overland transit of goods from Europe to India via Egypt was resumed.


Khedivate of Egypt Invasion of Libya and Sudan

In 1820 Muhammad Ali gave orders to commence the conquest of eastern Libya. He first sent an expedition westward (Feb. 1820) which conquered and annexed the Siwa oasis. Ali's intentions for Sudan was to extend his rule southward, to capture the valuable caravan trade bound for the Red Sea, and to secure the rich gold mines which he believed to exist in Sennar. He also saw in the campaign a means of getting rid of his disaffected troops, and of obtaining a sufficient number of captives to form the nucleus of the new army.

The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, the youngest son of Muhammad Ali. They consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, being Turks and Arabs. They left Cairo in July 1820. Dongola were defeated, the remnant of the Mamluks dispersed, and Sennar was reduced without a battle.

Massawa obtained.


Khedivate of Egypt Greek campaign

Muhammad Ali was fully conscious that the empire which he had so laboriously built up might at any time have to be defended by force of arms against his master Sultan Mahmud II, whose whole policy had been directed to curbing the power of his too ambitious vassals, and who was under the influence of the personal enemies of the pasha of Egypt, notably of Husrev Pasha, the grand vizier, who had never forgiven his humiliation in Egypt in 1803.

Mahmud also was already planning reforms borrowed from the West, and Muhammad Ali, who had had plenty of opportunity of observing the superiority of European methods of warfare, was determined to anticipate the sultan in the creation of a fleet and an army on European lines, partly as a measure of precaution, partly as an instrument for the realization of yet wider schemes of ambition. Before the outbreak of the War of Greek Independence in 1821, he had already expended much time and energy in organizing a fleet and in training, under the supervision of French instructors, native officers and artificers; though it was not till 1829 that the opening of a dockyard and arsenal at Alexandria enabled him to build and equip his own vessels. By 1823, moreover, he had succeeded in carrying out the reorganization of his army on European lines, the turbulent Turkish and Albanian elements being replaced by Sudanese and fellahin. The effectiveness of the new force was demonstrated in the suppression of an 1823 revolt of the Albanians in Cairo by six disciplined Sudanese regiments; after which Mehemet Ali was no more troubled with military mutinies.

His foresight was rewarded by the invitation of the sultan to help him in the task of subduing the Greek insurgents, offering as reward the pashaliks of the Morea and of Syria. Mehemet Ali had already, in 1821, been appointed by him governor of Crete, which he had occupied with a small Egyptian force. In the autumn of 1824 a fleet of 60 Egyptian warships carrying a large force of 17,000 disciplined troops concentrated in Suda Bay, and, in the following March, with Ibrahin as commander-in-chief landed in the Morea.

His naval superiority wrested from the Greeks the command of a great deal of the sea, on which the fate of the insurrection ultimately depended, while on land the Greek irregular bands, having largely soundly beaten the Porte's troops, had finally met a worthy foe in Ibrahim's disciplined troops. The history of the events that led up to the battle of Navarino and the liberation of Greece is told elsewhere; the withdrawal of the Egyptians from the Morea was ultimately due to the action of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington, who early in August 1828 appeared before Alexandria and induced the pasha, by no means sorry to have a reasonable excuse, by a threat of bombardment, to sign a convention undertaking to recall Ibrahim and his army. But for the action of European powers, it is suspected by many that the Ottoman Empire might have defeated the Greeks.


Khedivate of Egypt Wars against the Turks

Although Muhammad Ali had only been granted the title of wali, he proclaimed himself khedive, or hereditary viceroy, early on during his rule. The Ottoman government, although irritated, did nothing until Muhammad Ali invaded Ottoman-ruled Syria in 1831. The governorship of Syria had been promised him by the sultan, Mahmud II, for his assistance during the Greek War of Independence, but the title was not granted to him after the war.[4] This caused the Ottomans, allied with the British, to counter-attack in 1839.

In 1840, the British bombarded Beirut and an Anglo-Ottoman force landed and seized Acre.[5] The Egyptian army was forced to retreat back home, and Syria again became an Ottoman province. As a result of the Convention of London (1840), Muhammad Ali gave up all conquered lands with the exception of the Sudan and was in turn granted the hereditary governorship of the Sudan.


Khedivate of Egypt Muhammad Ali's successors

By 1848, Muhammad Ali was old and senile enough for his tuberculosis-ridden son, Ibrahim, to demand his accession to the governorship. The Ottoman sultan acceded to the demands, and Muhammad Ali was removed from power. However, Ibrahim died of his disease months later, outlived by his father, who died in 1849.

Ibrahim was succeeded by his nephew Abbas I, who undid many of Muhammad Ali's accomplishments. Abbas was assassinated by two of his slaves in 1854, and Muhammad Ali's fourth son, Sa'id, succeeded him. Sa'id brought back many of his father's policies[6] but otherwise had an unremarkable reign.

Sa'id ruled for only nine years,[7] and his nephew Isma'il, another grandson of Muhammad Ali, became wali. In 1867, the Ottoman sultan acknowledged Isma'il's use of the title khedive.


Khedivate of Egypt British occupation

In 1882 opposition to European control led to growing tension amongst native notables, the most dangerous opposition coming from the army. A large military demonstration in September 1881 forced the Khedive Tewfiq to dismiss his Prime Minister. In April 1882 France and Great Britain sent warships to Alexandria to bolster the Khedive amidst a turbulent climate, spreading fear of invasion throughout the country. By June Egypt was in the hands of nationalists opposed to European domination of the country. A British naval bombardment of Alexandria had little effect on the opposition which led to the landing of a British expeditionary force at both ends of the Suez Canal in August 1882. The British succeeded in defeating the Egyptian Army at Tel El Kebir in September and took control of the country putting Tewfiq back in control. The purpose of the invasion had been to restore political stability to Egypt under a government of the Khedive and international controls which were in place to streamline Egyptian financing since 1876.

British occupation ended nominally with the deposition of the last khedive Abbas II on 5 November 1914[8] and the establishment of a British protectorate, with the installation of sultan Hussein Kamel on 19 December 1914.


Khedivate of Egypt Sanctioned khedival rule (1867–1914)



Khedivate of Egypt European influence

By Isma'il's reign, the Egyptian government, headed by the minister Nubar Pasha, had become dependent on Britain and France for a healthy economy. Isma'il attempted to end this European dominance, while at the same time pursuing an aggressive domestic policy. Under Isma'il, 112 canals and 400 bridges were built in Egypt.[9]

Because of his efforts to gain economic independence from the European powers, Isma'il became unpopular with many British and French diplomats, including Evelyn Baring and Alfred Milner, who claimed that he was "ruining Egypt."[9]

In 1869, the completion of the Suez Canal gave Britain a faster route to India. This made Egypt increasingly reliant on Britain for both military and economic aid. Isma'il made no effort to reconcile with the European powers, who pressured the Ottoman sultan into removing[10] him from power.


Khedivate of Egypt Tewfik and the loss of Sudan

Isma'il was succeeded by his eldest son Tewfik, who, unlike his younger brothers, had not been educated in Europe. He pursued a policy of closer relations with Britain and France but his authority was undermined in a rebellion led by his war minister, Arabi Pasha, in 1882. Arabi took advantage of violent riots in Alexandria to seize control of the government and temporarily depose Tewfik.

British naval forces shelled and captured Alexandria, and an expeditionary force under General Sir Garnet Wolseley was formed in England. The British army landed in Egypt soon afterwards, and defeated Arabi's army in the Battle of Tel el-Kebir. Arabi was tried for treason and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to exile. After the revolt, the Egyptian army was reorganized on a British model and commanded by British officers.

Meanwhile, a religious rebellion had broken out in the Sudan, led by Muhammad Ahmed, who proclaimed himself the Mahdi. The Mahdist rebels had seized the regional capital of Kordofan and annihilated two British-led expeditions sent to quell it.[11] The British soldier-adventurer Charles George Gordon, an ex-governor of the Sudan, was sent to the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, with orders to evacuate its minority of European and Egyptian inhabitants. Instead of evacuating the city, Gordon prepared for a siege and held out from 1884 to 1885. However, Khartoum eventually fell, and he was killed.[11]

The British Gordon Relief Expedition was delayed by several battles, and was thus unable to reach Khartoum and save Gordon. The fall of Khartoum resulted in the proclamation of an Islamic state, ruled over first by the Mahdi and then by his successor Khalifa Abdullahi.


Khedivate of Egypt Reconquest of the Sudan

In 1896, during the reign of Tewfik's son, Omdurman, the Mahdist capital.

The Khalifa was hunted down and killed in 1899, in the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat, and Anglo-Egyptian rule was restored to the Sudan.


Khedivate of Egypt End of the Khedivate

Abbas II became very hostile to the British as his reign drew on, and, by 1911, was considered by Lord Kitchener to be a "wicked little Khedive" worthy of deposition.

In 1914, when World War I broke out, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, which were at war with the Allied nations, including Britain. As Egypt was still a nominal vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, the British proclaimed a Sultanate of Egypt and abolished the Khedivate on 5 November 1914.[8] Abbas II, who supported the Central Powers and was in Vienna for a state visit, was deposed from the Khedivate throne in his absence by the enforcement of the British military authorities in Cairo and was banned from returning to Egypt. He was succeeded by his uncle Hussein Kamel, who took the title of Sultan on 19 December 1914. Abbas II finally accepted the new order of things and formally abdicated on 12 May 1931, spending the rest of his life in Geneva, Switzerland, until his death on 19 December 1944 (on the 30th anniversary of Hussein Kamel's reign.)


Khedivate of Egypt Economy



Khedivate of Egypt Currency

During the khedivate, the standard form of Egyptian currency was the Egyptian pound.[13] Because of the gradual European domination of the Egyptian economy, the khedivate adopted the gold standard in 1885.[14]


Khedivate of Egypt Adoption of European-style industries

Although the adoption of modern industrial techniques was begun under Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century, the policy was continued under the khedives.

Machines were imported into Egypt,[13] and, by the abolition of the khedivate in 1914, the textile industry had become the most prominent one in the nation.


Khedivate of Egypt Notable events and people during khedival rule



Khedivate of Egypt Events


Khedivate of Egypt People


Khedivate of Egypt See also



Khedivate of Egypt References


  1. ^ Holes, Clive (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Georgetown Classics in Arabic Language and Linguistics (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2. OCLC 54677538. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  2. ^ Bonné, Alfred (2003) [First published 1945]. The Economic Development of the Middle East: An Outline of Planned Reconstruction after the War. The International Library of Sociology. London: Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-415-17525-8. OCLC 39915162. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  3. ^ Tanada, Hirofumi (March 1998). "Demographic Change in Rural Egypt, 1882–1917: Population of Mudiriya, Markaz and Madina". Discussion Paper No. D97–22. Hitotsubashi University: Institute of Economic Research. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  4. ^ "Private Tutor". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  5. ^ "Egypt - Muhammad Ali, 1805-48". Country-data.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  6. ^ "Egypt - Abbas Hilmi I, 1848-54 and Said, 1854-63". Country-data.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  7. ^ "Khedive of Egypt Ismail". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  8. ^ a b Article 17 of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) regarding the new status of Egypt and Sudan, starting from 5 November 1914, when the Khedivate was abolished.
  9. ^ a b "Egypt - From Autonomy To Occupation: Ismail, Tawfiq, And The Urabi Revolt". Country-data.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  10. ^ Tore Kjeilen (2005-02-24). "Ismail Pasha - LookLex Encyclopaedia". I-cias.com. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  11. ^ a b "Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History". Heritage-history.com. 1904-01-10. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  12. ^ "Britain Sudan Reconquest 1896-1899". Onwar.com. 2000-12-16. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  13. ^ a b "Egypt / Economy". LookLex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  14. ^ "Egyptian Pound". Retrieved 2010-11-02. 

Coordinates: 30°03′N 31°13′E / 30.050°N 31.217°E / 30.050; 31.217



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