Kirundi Kinyarwanda Kirundi Translator Kirundi Phrases Kirundi Words Learn Kirundi Kirundi English Online Dictionary Kinyarwanda and Kirundi Comparative Grammar African Language Kirundi
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|Native to||Burundi, Uganda|
|Ethnicity||Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa|
|Native speakers||8.8 million (2007)|
|Official language in||Burundi|
Kirundi, also known as Rundi, is a dialect of the Rwanda-Rundi language spoken by nine million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and Congo-Kinshasa, as well as in Uganda. It is the official language of Burundi. (The Kinyarwanda dialect is the official language of neighboring Rwanda.)
The inhabitants of Rwanda and Burundi belong to several different ethnic groups: Hutu (84%), Tutsi, including Hima (15%), and Twa (1%) (a pygmy people). The fact that these ethnic groups share the same language is assumed to be the result of the Hutu outnumbering the latter two groups (see Hutu for a more complete historical perspective).
Rundi is frequently cited as a language where Meeussen's rule, a rule describing a certain pattern of tonal change in Bantu languages, is active.
While the literature on Rundi agrees on 5 vowels, the number of consonants can vary anywhere from 19 to 26 consonants. The table below is compiled from a survey of academic acceptance of Rundi consonants, grouping voiceless and voiced consonants together in a cell where appropriate, in that order.
|Plosive||p b||t d||ɟ||k ɡ|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||h|
The table below gives the vowel sounds of Rundi.
Rundi is a tonal language. There are two essential tones in Rundi : high and low (or H and L). Since Rundi has phonemic distinction on vowel length, when a long vowel changes from a low tone to a high tone it is marked as a rising tone. When a long vowel changes from a high tone to a low tone, it is marked as a falling tone.
Rundi is often used in phonology to illustrate examples of Meeussen's rule In addition, it has been proposed that tones can shift by a metrical or rhythmic structure. Some authors have expanded these more complex features of the tonal system noting that such properties are highly unusual for a tone system.
Syllable structure in Rundi is considered to be CV, that is having no clusters, no coda consonants, and no complex vowel nuclei. It has been proposed that sequences that are CVV in the surface realization are actually CV in the underlying deep structure, with the consonant coalescing with the first vowel.
Rundi has been shown to have properties of consonant harmony particularly when it comes to sibilants. Meeussen described this harmony in his essay and it is investigated further by others. One example of this harmony is triggered by /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ and targets the set of /s/ and /z/ in preceding adjacent stem syllables.
|Ijoro ryiza||Good night|
|Uravuga icongereza?||Do you speak English?|
|Witwa gute?||What is your name?|
|Jewe nitwa||My name is|
|Woshobora kumfasha?||Can you help me?|
|Ikirundi n'ikinyarwanda bisa nk'igi czek n'igi slovak||Rundi and Rwanda are closely related like Czech and Slovak.|
|Nzoza ejo/Nzoz'ejo||I will come tomorrow|
|Leta zunz'ubumwe z'amerika||United States of America|
|°N.B. eejo is pronounced the same as ejo:
the other e is written for differentiation.
|Rundi edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|