MAFIA

Three 6 Mafia Mafia Movie Mafia Arrests Mafia the Game Current Mafia Families Current Mafia Bosses Italian Mafia Photos New York Italian Mafia




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  1. Mafia Today - Mafia related news from around the world.
  2. The Mafia and Freemasonry - Theories on the relationship between the Italian Mafia and "Massoneria."
  3. Mafia Today - Mafia related news from around the world. Site includes updated leadership page and mafia movie database.
  4. Mafia 2 Italia - Blog tematico attivo dal marzo del 2000.
  5. Mafia-The Game - Fan-Seite zum Action-Spiel mit Screenshots, Beschreibung des Spieles, News, Downloads und Forum.
  6. Mafia-game.com - Offizielle Informationen des Publishers zum Spiel in der PC und Xbox-Version sowie Downloads und Informationen zu den Entwicklern.
  7. The Mafia Site - History, structure and current events relating to the secret criminal society known as the Mafia. Links, photos and a suggested reading list.
  8. Wikipedia: Mafia - Article discusses the history, organization and terminology of the Cosa Nostra criminal society.
  9. The American Mafia: Tampa Crime Bosses - List of leaders of the western Florida Mafia organization.
  10. Kinopolis: Mafia - Die Datenbank enthält eine Inhaltsangabe zum Film und einen kurzen Kommentar.
  11. Mafia-The Game - Fan-Seite zum Action-Spiel mit Screenshots, Beschreibung des Spieles, News, Downloads und Forum.
  12. Mafia-International.Com - Introduction to the world of organized crime. American, Sicilian, Russian, Canadian, Australian mafia figures are profiled. Includes an organized crime discussion forum.
  13. The American Mafia: The Good Killers: 1921's Glimpse of the Mafia - Feature article written by Thomas Hunt and Michael Tona on the Castellammarese Mafia network responsible for the 1921 killing of Camillo Caiozzo in New Jersey.
  14. Verdict Is Termed A Blow to the Mafia - Ralph Blumenthal's New York Times article on the guilty verdicts in the 1986 Mafia Commission Case in New York and increased federal attention to Mafia activity across the U.S.
  15. AmericanMafia.com 26 Mafia Cities - Providence - The history of the New England Mafia in Rhode Island written by Mario Machi, Allan May and Charlie Molino.
  16. American Humane Association: Mafia - Detailed review of the ways animals were treated during filming.
  17. IMDb: Mafia! (1998) - Plot summary, cast and crew information, trailer, and user comments.
  18. La Mafia - Official site includes discography, pictures, and FAQ.
  19. De La Rosa, Oscar - Unofficial site for the lead singer for the double Grammy winning super Tejano group, La Mafia.
  20. La Mafia 2000 - Fan site for the 2000 tour of the Tejano group.


  21. [ Link Deletion Request ]

    mafia wars american mafia mafia 2 mafia game ndrangheta mafia italian mafia three 6 mafia amish mafia



    Mafia


    Mafia is a blanket term used to describe a type of organized crime syndicate that primarily practices protection racketeering — the use of violent intimidation to manipulate local economic activity, especially illicit trade; secondary activities may be practiced such as drug-trafficking, loan-sharking and fraud. Being bonded together by a code of honour, in particular the code of silence (or omertà in southern Italy), safeguards the Mafia from outside intrusion and law enforcement action.[1]

    The term was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia, but has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e.g. "the Russian Mafia" or "the Japanese Mafia". The term is applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g. the Sicilian and American Mafia calls itself "Cosa Nostra", the Mexican Mafia calls itself La Eme and the "Japanese Mafia" calls itself yakuza). When used alone, "Mafia" typically refers to either the Sicilian Mafia or the American Mafia.


    Mafia Etymology


    There are several theories about the origin of the term "Mafia" (sometimes spelled "Maffia" in early texts). The Sicilian adjective mafiusu (in Italian: mafioso) may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (مهياص), meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud (مرفوض) meaning "rejected". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.[2] In reference to a woman, however, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive.

    Other possible origins from Arabic:

    • maha = quarry, cave[3]
    • mu'afa = safety, protection[3]

    The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. The play is about a [5]


    Mafia Definitions


    A formal definition of "mafia" can be hard to come by. The term was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as "Cosa Nostra". Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. The expansion of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. Giovanni Falcone, an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general:

    While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" ... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term ... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.[6]


    Mafia Mafias as private protection firms

    Scholars such as Diego Gambetta[7] and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms", whose primary business is protection racketeering: they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling, robbing, or competing with those who pay them for protection. For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves (this is often because they are engaged in black market deals). Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods.

    For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves. These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term "krysha".

    With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option [...] most businessmen had to find themselves a reliable krysha under the leadership of an effective vor.

    —excerpt from McMafia by Misha Glenny.[8]

    Mafia Mafia-type organizations under Italian law

    In Italy, the term associazione di tipo mafioso ("Mafia-type organisation") is used to clearly distinguish the uniquely Sicilian Mafia from other criminal organisations that are structured like the Sicilian Mafia, such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta, the Sacra Corona Unita.[9] Article 416-bis of the Italian Penal Code, under which all criminal organisations are prosecuted, defines an association as being of Mafia-type nature "when those belonging to the association exploit the potential for intimidation which their membership gives them, and the compliance and omertà which membership entails and which lead to the committing of crimes, the direct or indirect assumption of management or control of financial activities, concessions, permissions, enterprises and public services for the purpose of deriving profit or wrongful advantages for themselves or others."[10][11]


    Mafia International


    Mafia-proper can refer to either:


    Mafia Italy

    Other Italian criminal organizations include:


    Mafia Other countries


    Mafia References


    1. ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 109
    2. ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below).
    3. ^ a b Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia. pp. 259-261.
    4. ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136.
    5. ^ Lupo, The History of the Mafia, p. 3.
    6. ^ Lupo, History of the Mafia, pp. 1–2
    7. ^ Diego Gambetta (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection
    8. ^ Glenny, Misha (2008). McMafia: A Journal Through the Global Criminal Underworld. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4000-4411-5. 
    9. ^ Mafia and Mafia-type organizations in Italy, by Umberto Santino, in: Albanese, Das & Verma, Organized Crime. World Perspectives, pp. 82-100
    10. ^ Seindal, Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, p. 20
    11. ^ Art. 416-bis, codice penale - Associazione di tipo mafioso
    12. ^ Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime 16 (1): 49–73. 

    Mafia Sources



    Three 6 Mafia Mafia Movie Mafia Arrests Mafia the Game Current Mafia Families Current Mafia Bosses Italian Mafia Photos New York Italian Mafia

    | Three 6 Mafia | Mafia Movie | Mafia Arrests | Mafia the Game | Current Mafia Families | Current Mafia Bosses | Italian Mafia Photos | New York Italian Mafia | Mafia | Mafia! | American_Mafia | Mafias | Russian_mafia | Mafia_(party_game) | Mafia:_The_City_of_Lost_Heaven | Mafia_Raj | Mafia_Island | Organized_crime | Serbian_mafia | Los_Angeles_Mafia | Crime_film | Springfield_Mafia | Bulgarian_mafia | Mafia_(Black_Label_Society_album) | Mafia_(The_Office) | Drug_cartel | Mafia_(B.U.G._Mafia_album) | Chinese_Mafia

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    Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mafia aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mafia&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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