Martin 2 0 2 Airliner
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|Japan Airlines Martin 2-0-2 "Mokusei" (1951)|
|Manufacturer||Glenn L. Martin Company|
|First flight||22 November 1946|
|Primary users||Northwest Orient Airlines
Trans World Airlines
The Martin 2-0-2 was one of the first modern airliners. The twin-engined piston aircraft was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company.
The first flight of the Model 2-0-2 was in November 1946. Full civilian certification was gained in August 1947. This was several months before competing aircraft types. The total production of 2-0-2 and 2-0-2A was 47 aircraft.
The aircraft was non-pressurized but was considered a long range airliner. The fatal crash in 1948 of Northwest Airlines Flight 421 revealed a serious structural problem in the wings. Structural metal fatigue was the problem in a major wing spar. Alloy 7075-T6 was used, which is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking and low toughness. The airliner was grounded and modifications were made. The wing components were redesigned and the engines replaced. The changed type was designated the Martin 2-0-2A.
On November 13, 1945 Pennsylvania Central Airlines purchased a fleet of 35 Martin 202's from the Glenn Martin Company for a price of $7,000,000. Two weeks later, Colonial Airlines announced that they would purchase 20 airplanes at the price of $4,000,000, scheduled for delivery in 1947. Early in the next year, Martin announced that Pennsylvania-Central Airlines had ordered 15 more 202's bringing the total aircraft on order in early January 1947 to 137 aircraft, with a sales value of $27,000,000. Despite the announcement of these large orders, the contract terms allowed the airlines to cancel them without any penalty. The 2-0-2 was unpressurised, unlike the competing Convair 240. Therefore, as delays in production built up, all airlines except Northwest, TWA, LAN and LAV cancelled their orders and only 31 2-0-2s and 12 2-0-2As were actually delivered to the airlines. The first scheduled flight was on Northwest between Minneapolis and Chicago on 13 October 1947.
The 2-0-2 was the first airplane subjected to the CAA's then new 'Accelerated Service Test', introduced May 15, 1947. In this test an airliner was to undergo a rigorous 150-hour test, attempting to squeeze one year's service into a week to ten day's flying. The 202 made such a test visiting about 50 cities in 7 days. At each city comprehensive inspections were made of the aircraft systems to assess how wear or malfunction would occur.
TWA and Northwest, initial customers of the 2-0-2, eventually sold their Martin 2-0-2s to California Central and Pioneer Airlines. Later, Allegheny Airlines acquired many of the 2-0-2's as part of the company's expansion plans, beginning June 1, 1955. Eventually they acquired a total of 18 aircraft.
This airliner was eventually developed into the Martin 4-0-4, which was more successful.
The Martin Company designated the following quantities for the airlines (though not all were built), listed by Martin Model number:
♠ original operators
The Martin 2-0-2 had 13 hull-loss accidents and incidents of which nine were fatal accidents.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52
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