MONOCULTURE

Monoculture vs Polyculture Monoculture Sociology Monoculture Problems Monoculture Book Advantages and Disadvantages of Monoculture Corn Monoculture By What Factors Are All Cultures Defined Selecting the Most Efficient Crops




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  1. Primal Seeds Network - Site provides illustrated background information on agricultural biodiversity issues and the threats from monoculture and genetic engineering.
  2. Eden Foundation - Working for the preservation of biodiversity, against monoculture agriculture, and for better ways for humans to live in harmony with their environment.
  3. Maintaining Identities: Discourses of Homogeneity in a Rapidly Globalising Japan - Looks at the ideological tools that maintain the idea of Japan as a mono-cultural, homogeneous society and investigates multiculturalism and internationalization in Japan.
  4. Navdanya: Research Foundation for Science,Technology and Ecology, India - Site provides information on agricultural biodiversity conservation and protection of people's rights, livelihoods and environment from centralised systems of monoculture in forestry, agriculture and fisheries. Links to many Indian and global movements. Navdanya is a program of the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (RFSTE) set up by Vandana Shiva.
  5. World Rainforest Movement - Campaign against large scale monoculture tree plantations in many countries. These plantations are resulting in a number of negative social and environmental impacts on local communities.


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    Monoculture


    Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years. It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labour.

    Monocultures can lead to the quicker spread of pests and diseases, where a uniform crop is susceptible to a pathogen. 'Crop monoculture' is the practice of growing the same crop year after year.[1]

    The term is frequently borrowed for other uses, such as raising one species of livestock in a farm, or even in fields other than agriculture to describe any group dominated by a single variety, e.g. in the field of musicology to describe the dominance of the American and British music-industries in pop music, or in the field of computer science to describe a group of computers all running identical software.

    A monocultivated potato field


    Monoculture Land use


    The term is mostly used in agriculture and describes the practice of planting crops with the same patterns of growth resulting from genetic similarity. Examples include wheat fields or apple orchards or grape vineyards. These cultivars have uniform growing requirements and habits resulting in greater yields on less land because planting, maintenance (including pest control) and harvesting can be standardized. This standardization results in less waste and loss from inefficient harvesting and planting. It also is beneficial because a crop can be tailor planted for a location that has special problems - like soil salt or drought or a short growing season.[citation needed]

    Monoculture produces great yields by utilizing plants' abilities to maximize growth under less pressure from other species and more uniform plant structure. Uniform cultivars are able to better use available light and space, but also have a greater drain on soil nutrients. In the last 40 years modern practices such as monoculture planting and the use of synthesized fertilizers have greatly reduced the amount of land needed to produce much higher yielding crops.[2]


    Monoculture Forestry

    In forestry, monoculture refers to the planting of one species of tree.[3] Monoculture plantings provide great yields[citation needed] and more efficient harvesting than natural stands of trees. Single species stands of trees are often the natural way trees grow, but the stands show a diversity in tree sizes, with dead trees mixed with mature and young trees. In forestry, monoculture stands that are planted and harvested as a unit provide limited resources for wildlife that depend on dead trees and openings, since all the trees are the same size; they are most often harvested by clear cutting, which drastically alters the habitat. The mechanical harvesting of trees can compact soils, which can adversely affect understory growth.[4] Single species planting of trees also are more vulnerable when infected with a pathogen, or are attacked by insects,[5] and by adverse environmental conditions.[6]


    Monoculture Lawns and animals

    Examples of monoculture include lawns and most field crops, such as wheat or corn. The term is also used where a single species of farm animal is raised in large-scale concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).


    Monoculture Disease

    Monocultures used in agriculture are usually single strains that have been bred for high yield and resistant to certain common diseases. Since all plants in a monoculture are genetically similar, if a disease strikes to which they have no resistance, it can destroy entire populations of crops. Polyculture, which is the mixing of different crops, has natural variation and a likelihood that one or more of the crops will be resistant to any particular pathogen. Studies have shown planting a mixture of crop strains in the same field to be effective at combating disease.[7] Ending monocultures grown under disease conditions by introducing crop diversity has greatly increased yields. In one study in China, the planting of several varieties of rice in the same field increased yields of non-resistant strains by 89% compared to non-resistant strains grown in monoculture, largely because of a dramatic (94%) decrease in the incidence of disease, making pesticides less necessary.[8] There is currently a great deal of international worry about the wheat leaf rust fungus, that has already decimated wheat crops in Uganda and Kenya, and is starting to make inroads into Asia as well.[9] As much of the worlds wheat crops are very genetically similar following the Green Revolution, the impacts of such diseases threaten agricultural production worldwide.


    Monoculture Polyculture

    The environmental movement seeks to change popular culture by redefining the "perfect lawn" to be something other than a turf monoculture, and seeks agricultural policy that provides greater encouragement for more diverse cropping systems. Local food systems may also encourage growing multiple species and a wide variety of crops at the same time and same place. Heirloom gardening has come about largely as a reaction against monocultures in agriculture.


    Monoculture See also



    Monoculture References


    1. ^ http://www.cropscience.org.au/icsc2004/symposia/2/1/1128_cookrj.htm
    2. ^ G. Tyler Miller; Scott Spoolman (24 September 2008). Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions. Cengage Learning. pp. 279–. ISBN 978-0-495-55671-8. Retrieved 7 September 2010. 
    3. ^ http://www.ag-network-chile.net/Monoculture%20Forestry.htm
    4. ^ http://www.umich.edu/~nre301/forestry-02.doc
    5. ^ Richardson, Edited by David M. (2000). Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge, U.K. p. 371. doi:10.2277/. ISBN 978-0-521-78910-3 
    6. ^ "Forestry". 
    7. ^ Zhu, Youyong (June 2000). "Genetic diversity and disease control in rice". International Weekly Journal Of Science 406: 718–722. Retrieved 17 August 2000. 
    8. ^ "Genetic Diversity and Disease Control in Rice". 
    9. ^ Vidal, John (2009-03-19). "'Stem rust' fungus threatens global wheat harvest". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-05-13. 

    Monoculture External links




    Monoculture vs Polyculture Monoculture Sociology Monoculture Problems Monoculture Book Advantages and Disadvantages of Monoculture Corn Monoculture By What Factors Are All Cultures Defined Selecting the Most Efficient Crops

    | Monoculture vs Polyculture | Monoculture Sociology | Monoculture Problems | Monoculture Book | Advantages and Disadvantages of Monoculture | Corn Monoculture | By What Factors Are All Cultures Defined | Selecting the Most Efficient Crops | Monoculture | Globalization | Monoculture_(computer_science) | Biodiversity | Agriculture | Global_economic_monoculture | Global_political_monoculture | Nonoculture | Green_Revolution | Tamsyn_Challenger | Polyculture | Cultural_diversity | Sainthood_Reps | Rubber_tapping | Plantation | List_of_invasive_plant_species_in_the_Indiana_Dunes | Agroecological_restoration | Market_garden | List_of_environmental_issues | Shade-grown_coffee | Take-all | Elsick_Mounth | Agriculture_in_Laos | Blastesthia_turionella | The_Land_Institute | Pattern_Recognition_(novel) | Karakum_Canal | Ecophagy | Integrated_multi-trophic_aquaculture | The_Botany_of_Desire | Vachellia_drepanolobium | Haenertsburg | Sirumalai | Colombian_Grebe | Lupinus_nootkatensis | Parantica_nilgiriensis | Integrated_farming | Wood_economy | Rettet_den_Regenwald | Bioshelter | Biofuelwatch | Aristeu_Borges_de_Aguiar | Aktuala_(album) | Toro,_Valle_del_Cauca | Sylvia_Convey | Issues_in_American_commodity_farming | Organic_farming_and_biodiversity | Wikiwoods

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    Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoculture aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monoculture&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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