NATTERJACK TOAD

Common Toad Taxonomy Sand Toad Pictures Toads Diet Natterjacks Toad Facts and Habitat Location Natterjack Toad Facts




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| Common Toad Taxonomy | Sand Toad Pictures | Toads Diet | Natterjacks | Toad Facts and Habitat Location | Natterjack Toad Facts |

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Natterjack toad


Natterjack
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Epidalea
Cope, 1864
Species: E. calamita
Binomial name
Epidalea calamita
(Laurenti, 1768)

The natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita, formerly Bufo calamita) is a toad native to sandy and heathland areas of Europe. Adults are 60–70 mm in length and are distinguished from common toads by a yellow line down the middle of the back. They have relatively short legs, and this gives them a distinctive gait, contrasting with the hopping movement of many other toad species.

Natterjacks have a very loud and distinctive mating call, amplified by the single vocal sac found under the chin of the male animal.


Natterjack toad Life history


Natterjack Toads calling
Egg strings
PuddleWithTadpoles
A very young natterjack
A slightly older natterjack, though still not fully grown

Natterjacks live for up to 15 years and feed on insects, worms and small reptiles. At night they move around open terrain with sparse vegetation, and in loose sand their tracks can often be seen. They move considerable distances each night, enabling the species to colonize new habitats very quickly.


Natterjack toad Reproduction

The natterjack toad spawns between the end of April and July, laying strings of eggs in shallow, warm pools. Because the natterjack toad is often present in low numbers, its loud mating calls are important so that the sexes can find each other.

For natterjacks, pools need to have a very slight slope with sparse vegetation on the banks and in the water. As such pools are often temporary, sometimes the tadpoles die when the pools dry out. The natterjack compensates for that risk by mating over an extended period each summer. Thus in September the age of the juveniles can vary from a month to three months. It appears that the early breeders are not the same individuals as the toads that reproduce later in the season.


Natterjack toad Distribution


Distribution of the natterjack toad

Populations of the natterjack extend through 17 European countries.[2] In the British Isles the toad is almost completely confined to coastal sites. In mainland Europe, particularly in the southern part of its range, it lives inland in a variety of habitats.


Natterjack toad Ireland

The natterjack is the only species of toad native to Ireland. It is found on the Dingle peninsula and at Derrynane in County Kerry and also in County Wexford where it was introduced to a dune site.[2] [3] It has also been sighted in a few secluded ponds on Lamb's Head.[citation needed]


Natterjack toad Conservation



Natterjack toad UK

In the UK the threatened status of the species resulted in the national Biodiversity Action Plan designating it as one of three protected amphibians. Reasons for its threatened status include:

  • loss of habitat from human overpopulation,
  • reduction in habitable coast from construction of dykes and seawalls,
  • acidification of aquatic habitat from acid rain and other pollution factors.

In England, the toad's sand dune habitat is protected by a number of National Nature Reserves. For example in the north-west there are reserves at Hoylake, Ainsdale Sand Dunes,[4] North Walney, Sandscale Haws. In Scotland, where the species is confined to the Solway Firth, there is a reserve at Caerlaverock. In Wales the species became extinct in the twentieth century, but has been reintroduced.[5]


Natterjack toad Ireland

To reverse habitat loss the National Parks and Wildlife Service has created ponds for the species with some funding from the Heritage Council.[2][6]


Natterjack toad In fiction


  • The natterjack is a primary character in the book The Time Garden by Edward Eager. In it, the natterjack is portrayed as a magical creature who understands the laws of magic and time and assists the children on their adventures.
  • Natterjack is a character in the CBeebies show Kerwhizz.

Natterjack toad References


  1. ^ Beja, P. et al. (2008). "Epidalea calamita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c Viney, M. (2 April 2011). Here's what biodiversity has done for us, Irish Times
  3. ^ Korky, J.K. 2008. Notes on the 2007 breeding season of the Natterjack Toad Epidalea calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in Ireland. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. No 32:21 - 31.
  4. ^ North Merseyside Biodiversity Action Plan
  5. ^ http://www.newswales.co.uk/?section=Environment&F=1&id=4175
  6. ^ http://www.theirishworld.com/article.asp?SubSection_Id=2&Article_Id=14339

Natterjack toad External links



Natterjack toad Further reading


Korky, J.K. 2008. Notes on the 2007 breeding season of the Natterjack Toad Epidalea calamita Laurenti (Anura: Bufonidae) in Ireland. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. 32:21 - 31.



Common Toad Taxonomy Sand Toad Pictures Toads Diet Natterjacks Toad Facts and Habitat Location Natterjack Toad Facts

| Common Toad Taxonomy | Sand Toad Pictures | Toads Diet | Natterjacks | Toad Facts and Habitat Location | Natterjack Toad Facts | Natterjack_toad | Common_toad | North_Walney | Dune | Glenbeigh | Saltfleetby | Theddlethorpe | Matsalu_National_Park | Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe_Dunes_National_Nature_Reserve | Midwife_toad | Syderstone | Maharees | North_Norfolk_Coast_Site_of_Special_Scientific_Interest | Sandscale_Haws | River_Tat | Red_Rocks_(SSSI) | Bufo | True_toad | Formby

Copyright:
Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natterjack_toad aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Natterjack_toad&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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