# PLASMON

Plasmon Biscotti Plasmon Polariton Plasmon Ghost Plasmon LMS Plasmon MT Plasmon Data Systems Plasmon Resonance Applications Surface Plasmons

1. Plasmon Data Systems UK - Manufactures mass data storage devices, magneto optical and media.
2. Plasmon LMS - Manufacturer of optical and tape mass storage devices. Products include Blackjack, Infinity 8000, 12 inch optical, and NCTP.
3. Reichert - Suppliers of surface plasmon resonance instruments.
4. SPR Web Pages - Describes surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a powerful method of measuring biomolecular interactions in a label-free environment.
5. Söennichsen, Carsten - Describes research in nano-optics: plasmons in metal particles, microscopy, single particle spectroscopy. With links to CV and other resources.
6. Muskens, Otto L. - List of publications and research interests in plasmonics, nanophotonics and nanoacoustics. PhD thesis on-line.
7. International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics - To be held in Cairo, Egypt, 22-25 February, 2010.
8. Wubs, Martijn - Associate professor at DTU Fotonik, Denmark. Research interests: nanophotonics, plasmonics, quantum optics, quantum information. Website includes publications, presentations, curriculum vitae and contact information.
9. Cascina La Gioia - Bed and breakfast con azienda agricola per la produzione di frutta biologica Plasmon. Fotografie dell'azienda e del territorio con possibilità di prenotazione online.
10. Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory - The Bio-inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Lab (BISOL) is focused on researching infrared detectors and vision systems, nano-scale lasers, visible to terahertz plasmonics, and novel nano-processing.
11. Biaffin GmbH & Co KG - Offers biomolecular interaction analysis, with a state of the art biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance. Details of sensor chip, immobilisation, detection, applications, and assay development offered from Kassel, Germany.
12. GWC Instruments - Produces instruments which use Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) to measure absorption of thin films on gold surfaces. This technique is used to study interactions between proteins, DNA, and RNA. Includes a list of products.
13. Biacore - Label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based technology for studying biomolecular interactions in real time.
14. Biaffin GmbH & Co KG - Die Firma bietet biomolekulare Interaktionsanalysen mit einem modernen Biosensor basierend auf Surface Plasmon Resonance komerziell als Service-Dienstleistung an.

15. [ Link Deletion Request ]

# Plasmon

In physics, a plasmon is a quantum of plasma oscillation. The plasmon is a quasiparticle resulting from the quantization of plasma oscillations just as photons and phonons are quantizations of electromagnetic and mechanical vibrations, respectively (although the photon is an elementary particle, not a quasiparticle). Thus, plasmons are collective oscillations of the free electron gas density, for example, at optical frequencies. Plasmons can couple with a photon to create another quasiparticle called a plasma polariton.

Since plasmons are the quantization of classical plasma oscillations, most of their properties can be derived directly from Maxwell's equations.

## Plasmon Explanation

Plasmons can be described in the classical picture as an oscillation of free electron density with respect to the fixed positive ions in a metal. To visualize a plasma oscillation, imagine a cube of metal placed in an external electric field pointing to the right. Electrons will move to the left side (uncovering positive ions on the right side) until they cancel the field inside the metal. If the electric field is removed, the electrons move to the right, repelled by each other and attracted to the positive ions left bare on the right side. They oscillate back and forth at the plasma frequency until the energy is lost in some kind of resistance or damping. Plasmons are a quantization of this kind of oscillation.

### Plasmon Role of plasmons

Plasmons play a large role in the optical properties of metals. Light of frequency below the plasma frequency is reflected, because the electrons in the metal screen the electric field of the light. Light of frequency above the plasma frequency is transmitted, because the electrons cannot respond fast enough to screen it. In most metals, the plasma frequency is in the ultraviolet, making them shiny (reflective) in the visible range. Some metals, such as copper[1] and gold,[2] have electronic interband transitions in the visible range, whereby specific light energies (colors) are absorbed, yielding their distinct color. In semiconductors, the valence electron plasma frequency is usually in the deep ultraviolet,[3][4] which is why they are reflective.

The plasmon energy can often be estimated in the free electron model as

$E_{p} =$$\hbar$$\sqrt{\frac{n e^{2}}{m\epsilon_0}} =$$\hbar$$\cdot \omega_{p},$

where $n$ is the conduction electron density, $e$ is the elementary charge, $m$ is the electron mass, $\epsilon_0$ the permittivity of free space, $\hbar$ the reduced Planck constant and $\omega_{p}$ the plasmon frequency.

## Plasmon Surface plasmons

Surface plasmons are those plasmons that are confined to surfaces and that interact strongly with light resulting in a polariton.[5] They occur at the interface of a vacuum and material with a small positive imaginary and large negative real dielectric constant (usually a metal or doped dielectric). They play a role in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and in explaining anomalies in diffraction from metal gratings (Wood's anomaly), among other things. Surface plasmon resonance is used by biochemists to study the mechanisms and kinetics of ligands binding to receptors (i.e. a substrate binding to an enzyme).

Gothic stained glass rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris. The colors were achieved by colloids of gold nano-particles.

More recently surface plasmons have been used to control colors of materials.[6] This is possible since controlling the particle's shape and size determines the types of surface plasmons that can couple to it and propagate across it. This in turn controls the interaction of light with the surface. These effects are illustrated by the historic stained glass which adorn medieval cathedrals. In this case, the color is given by metal nanoparticles of a fixed size which interact with the optical field to give the glass its vibrant color. In modern science, these effects have been engineered for both visible light and microwave radiation. Much research goes on first in the microwave range because at this wavelength material surfaces can be produced mechanically as the patterns tend to be of the order a few centimeters. To produce optical range surface plasmon effects involves producing surfaces which have features <400 nm. This is much more difficult and has only recently become possible to do in any reliable or available way.

## Plasmon Possible applications

Position and intensity of plasmon absorption and emission peaks are affected by molecular adsorption, which can be used in molecular sensors. For example, a fully operational prototype device detecting casein in milk has been fabricated. The device is based on detecting a change in absorption of a gold layer.[7] Localized surface plasmons of metal nanoparticles can be used for sensing different types molecules, proteins, etc.

Plasmons are being considered as a means of transmitting information on [8]

Plasmons have also been proposed as a means of high-resolution lithography and microscopy due to their extremely small wavelengths. Both of these applications have seen successful demonstrations in the lab environment. Finally, surface plasmons have the unique capacity to confine light to very small dimensions which could enable many new applications.

Surface plasmons are very sensitive to the properties of the materials on which they propagate. This has led to their use to measure the thickness of monolayers on colloid films, such as screening and quantifying protein binding events. Companies such as Biacore have commercialized instruments which operate on these principles. Optical surface plasmons are being investigated with a view to improve makeup by L'Oréal among others.[9]

In 2009, a Korean research team found a way to greatly improve organic light-emitting diode efficiency with the use of plasmons.[10]

A group of European researchers led by IMEC has begun work to improve solar cell efficiencies and costs through incorporation of metallic nanostructures (using plasmonic effects) that can enhance absorption of light into different types of solar cells: crystalline silicon (c-Si), high-performance III-V, organic, and dye-sensitized solar cells. [11]

Full color holograms using plasmonics[12] have been demonstrated.

## Plasmon References

1. ^ Burdick, Glenn (1963). "Energy Band Structure of Copper". Physical Review 129: 138. Bibcode:1963PhRv..129..138B. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.129.138.
2. ^ S.Zeng et al. (2011). "A review on functionalized gold nanoparticles for biosensing applications". Plasmonics 6 (3): 491–506. doi:10.1007/s11468-011-9228-1.
3. ^ , have electronic interband transitions in the visible range, whereby specific light energies (colors) are absorbed, yielding their distinct color Kittel, C. (2005). Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 403, table 2.
4. ^ Böer, K. W. (2002). Survey of Semiconductor Physics 1 (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 525.
5. ^ S.Zeng et al. (2012). "Size dependence of Au NP-enhanced surface plasmon resonance based on differential phase measurement". Sensors and Actuators B. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2012.09.073.
6. ^ "LEDs work like butterflies' wings". BBC News. November 18, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
7. ^ Heip, H. M.; et al. (2007). "A localized surface plasmon resonance based immunosensor for the detection of casein in milk". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 8 (4): 331. Bibcode:2007STAdM...8..331M. doi:10.1016/j.stam.2006.12.010.
8. ^ Lewotsky, Kristin (2007). "The Promise of Plasmonics". SPIE Professional. doi:10.1117/2.4200707.07.
9. ^
10. ^
11. ElectroIQ. 30 March 2010.
12. ^ Kawata, Satoshi. "New technique lights up the creation of holograms". Phys.org. Retrieved 24 September 2013.

# Plasmon Biscotti Plasmon Polariton Plasmon Ghost Plasmon LMS Plasmon MT Plasmon Data Systems Plasmon Resonance Applications Surface Plasmons

| Plasmon Biscotti | Plasmon Polariton | Plasmon Ghost | Plasmon LMS | Plasmon MT | Plasmon Data Systems | Plasmon Resonance Applications | Surface Plasmons | Plasmon | Surface_plasmon | Surface_plasmon_resonance | Plasmon_biscuit | Surface_plasmon_polariton | Localized_Surface_Plasmons | Plasmon_frequency | Surface_plasmon_polaritons_enhanced_Raman_scattering | Quasiparticle | Plasmonic_metamaterials | Nanoshell | Plasmonic_lens | Spaser | Spreeta | Plasmaron | Plasmonic_solar_cell | Allan_Boardman | SensiQ | Extraordinary_optical_transmission | Plasmonic_laser

Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmon aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmon&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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