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|Criticism & Awards|
Qadi Iyad ibn Musa (1083–1149) (Arabic: القاضي عياض بن موسى, in French transliteration Qadi Iyad) or Abu al-Fadl `Iyad ibn Amr ibn Musa ibn `Iyad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdillah ibn Musa ibn `Iyad al-Yahsubi al-Sabti (أبو الفضل عياض بن موسى بن عياض بن عمرو بن موسى بن عياض بن محمد بن عبد الله بن موسى بن عياض اليحصبي السبتي ) born in Ceuta, then belonging to the Almoravid Empire, was the great imam of that city and, later, a high judge (qadi) in Granada.
He headed a revolt against the coming of the Almohades to Ceuta, but lost and was banished to Tadla and later Marrakech. He was a pupil of Abu Abdillah ibn Isa, Abu Abdillah ibn Hamdin and Abu al-Hassan ibn Siraj, and was a teacher of Averroes and Ibn Maḍāʾ.
He died in 1149. Because he refused to acknowledge Ibn Tumart as the awaited Mahdi, Qadi Ayyad was executed with a spear and his body subsequently cut to pieces. Although he was opposed to the Almohads and the ideas of Ibn Hazm, he did not hold enmity for the Zahirite school of Sunni Islam, which the Almohads and Ibn Hazm followed. Ayyad's comments on Ibn Hazm's teacher Abu al-Khiyar al-Zahiri were positive, as was Ayyad's characterization of his own father, a Zahirite theologian.
He was one of the most famous scholars of Maliki law and author of the well-known Ash-Shifa on the virtues of the prophet and Tartib al-mardarik wa-taqrib al-masalik li-marifat alam madhab Malik, a collection of biographies of eminent Malikis, a.o. Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi. Qadi `Iyad's other well known works include: