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  1. WxUSA - Rwanda - Current weather conditions by city.
  2. Political Resources on the Net - Rwanda - Directory of online Rwanda political sites, with links to parties, organizations, governments and media.
  3. Access Rwanda Safaris - Offers tailor made holidays to Rwanda and Uganda to see the mountain gorillas, golden monkeys, chimpanzees and birds.
  4. CDC Global HIV/AIDS Activities: Rwanda - Profile of the health activities in which the CDC is supporting the Government of Rwanda.
  5. US Library of Congress - Portals to the World: Rwanda - Annotated directory of selected online resources.
  6. Birds of Rwanda: Checklist - Rwanda birds coded for abundance, breeding, migration, wintering, endemic and rare.
  7. Rwanda Gorillas - Provides photographs and information on gorillas, on the Parc National des Volcanos where they are found, and on accommodation and safaris.
  8. Rudy Brueggemann's Rwanda Analysis Page - Rudy Brueggemann's Rwanda analysis page, with links to a page of Rwanda-related links and a page of Rwanda images, 1997
  9. Rwanda - Wikipedia - Ustrój polityczny państwa, informacje administracyjne, geografia, historia i gospodarka kraju.
  10. Rwanda - Ośrodek Informacji ONZ - Wydarzenia, konferencje i przemówienia dotyczące ludobójstwa w Rwandzie.
  11. Rwanda - This Wikipedia encyclopaedia entry describes the national team. General information and statistics.
  12. Flag of Rwanda - GIF images of the current national flag and the previous flag of 1962-2001.
  13. Diaspora General Directorate - The DGD is responsible for integrating the diaspora into national development in Rwanda. Includes information on Rwanda, its economy and government, programs, partnerships, associations and initiatives.
  14. - Rwanda - News reports and headlines from African and worldwide sources, updated with breaking news.
  15. afrol News - Rwanda - Independent news agency coverage of the country. [English, Spanish]
  16. Stanford University - South of the Sahara: Rwanda News - Annotated directory of links to web resources.
  17. Topix - Rwanda News - Headline links from media sources around the world.
  18. Topix - Rwanda News - Headline links from media sources around the world.
  19. Radio Station World - Rwanda - List of broadcasters, TV and radio stations (local, national, international, shortwave and on the web), with links where available.
  20. Wikipedia: List of Mammals of Rwanda - Provides details of the animal species found in the country including their status.

  21. [ Link Deletion Request ]

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    Republic of Rwanda
    Repubulika y'u Rwanda
    République du Rwanda
    The flag of Rwanda: blue, yellow and green stripes with a yellow sun in top right corner The seal of Rwanda: central tribal devices, surmounted on a cog wheel and encircled by a square knot
    Flag Seal
    Motto: "Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu"
    "Unity, Work, Patriotism"
    Anthem: Rwanda nziza
    Beautiful Rwanda
    Map showing the central part of Africa, with Rwanda coloured in red
    Location of Rwanda (red) in Central Africa.
    and largest city
    1°56.633′S 30°3.567′E / 1.943883°S 30.059450°E / -1.943883; 30.059450
    Official languages
    Ethnic groups
    • Rwandan
    • Rwandese
    Government Unitary parliamentary
    presidential republic
     -  President Paul Kagame
     -  Prime Minister Pierre Habumuremyi
    Legislature Parliament
     -  Upper house Senate
     -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
     -  from Belgium 1 July 1962 
     -  Total 26,338 km2 (149th)
    10,169 sq mi
     -  Water (%) 5.3
     -  July 2013 estimate 12,012,589[1] (81st)
     -  2002 census 8,162,715[2]
     -  Density 419.8/km2 (29th)
    1,087.2/sq mi
    GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
     -  Total $16.937 billion[3]
     -  Per capita $1,592[3]
    GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
     -  Total $7.769 billion[3]
     -  Per capita $730[3]
    Gini (2011) 50.8[4]
    HDI (2013) Increase 0.434[5]
    low · 167th
    Currency Rwandan franc (RWF)
    Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
     -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+2)
    Drives on the right
    Calling code +250
    ISO 3166 code RW
    Internet TLD .rw

    Rwanda (/rˈɑːndə/ or /rˈændə/), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Kinyarwanda: Repubulika y'u Rwanda; French: République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Southeast Africa. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is oftentimes also considered part of Central Africa. All of Rwanda is at high elevation, with a geography dominated by mountains in the west, savanna in the east, and numerous lakes throughout the country, situating it in the African Great Lakes region. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons every year.

    The population is young and predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans form three groups: the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people who descend from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants, but scholars disagree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi; some believe that they are derived from former social castes, while others view them as being races or tribes. Christianity is the largest religion in the country, and the principal language is Kinyarwanda, which is spoken by most Rwandans, with French and English as official languages. Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), who took office in 2000. Rwanda has low corruption compared with neighbouring countries, but human rights organisations allege suppression of opposition groups, intimidation, and restrictions on freedom of speech. The country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times; there are five provinces, which are delineated by borders drawn in 2006. Rwanda has the world's highest proportion of females in government positions in proportion to the population.

    Hunter gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages, followed later by Bantu settlers. The population coalesced, first into clans and then into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power, and later enacting anti-Hutu policies. Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations ruled through the kings and perpetuated pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu population revolted in 1959, massacring a large number of Tutsi and ultimately establishing an independent Hutu-dominated state in 1962. The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990, which was followed by the 1994 genocide, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu. The RPF ended the genocide with a military victory.

    Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, but has since strengthened. The economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector and is now the country's leading foreign exchange earner; Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, and visitors are prepared to pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan culture, particularly drums and the highly choreographed intore dance. Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art.

    Rwanda History

    Modern human settlement of what is now Rwanda dates from, at the latest, the last glacial period, either in the Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC.[6] Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools.[7][8] These early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda today.[9] Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, and began to clear forest land for agriculture.[10][9] The forest-dwelling Twa lost much of their habitat and moved to the slopes of mountains.[11] Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations; one theory is that the first settlers were Hutu, while the Tutsi migrated later and formed a distinct racial group, possibly of Cushitic origin.[12] An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering the existing society.[13][9] Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose later and was a class distinction rather than a racial one.[14][15]

    Photograph of King's palace in Nyanza, Rwanda depicting main entrance, front and conical roof
    A reconstruction of the King of Rwanda's palace at Nyanza
    The flag of Rwanda between 1962 and 2001.

    The earliest form of social organisation in the area was the [23]

    The Berlin Conference of 1884 assigned the territory to Germany as part of German East Africa, marking the beginning of the colonial era. The explorer Gustav Adolf von Götzen was the first European to significantly explore the country in 1894; he crossed from the south-east to Lake Kivu and met the king.[24][25] The Germans did not significantly alter the social structure of the country, but exerted influence by supporting the king and the existing hierarchy and delegating power to local chiefs.[26] Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi during World War I, beginning a period of more direct colonial rule.[27] Belgium simplified and centralised the power structure,[28] and introduced large-scale projects in education, health, public works, and agricultural supervision, including new crops and improved agricultural techniques to try to reduce the incidence of famine.[29] Both the Germans and the Belgians promoted Tutsi supremacy, considering the Hutu and Tutsi different races.[30] In 1935, Belgium introduced identity cards labelling each individual as either Tutsi, Hutu, Twa or Naturalised. While it had previously been possible for particularly wealthy Hutu to become honorary Tutsi, the identity cards prevented any further movement between the classes.[31]

    Belgium continued to rule Rwanda as a UN Trust Territory after World War II, with a mandate to oversee independence.[32][33] Tension escalated between the Tutsi, who favoured early independence, and the Hutu emancipation movement, culminating in the 1959 Rwandan Revolution: Hutu activists began killing Tutsi, forcing more than 100,000 to seek refuge in neighbouring countries.[34][35] In 1962, the now pro-Hutu Belgians held a referendum and elections in which the country voted to abolish the monarchy. Rwanda was separated from Burundi and gained independence in 1962.[36] Cycles of violence followed, with exiled Tutsi attacking from neighbouring countries and the Hutu retaliating with large-scale slaughter and repression of the Tutsi.[37] In 1973, Juvénal Habyarimana took power in a military coup. Pro-Hutu discrimination continued, but there was greater economic prosperity and a reduced amount of violence against Tutsi.[38] The Twa remained marginalised, and by 1990 were almost entirely forced out of the forests by the government; many became beggars.[39] Rwanda's population had increased from 1.6 million people in 1934 to 7.1 million in 1989, leading to competition for land.[40]

    In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda, initiating the Rwandan Civil War.[41] Neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage in the war,[42] but by 1992 it had weakened Habyarimana's authority; mass demonstrations forced him into a coalition with the domestic opposition and eventually to sign the 1993 Arusha Accords with the RPF.[43] The cease-fire ended on 6 April 1994 when Habyarimana's plane was shot down near Kigali Airport, killing him.[44] The shooting down of the plane served as the catalyst for the Rwandan Genocide, which began within a few hours. Over the course of approximately 100 days, between 500,000 and 1,000,000[45] Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu were killed in well-planned attacks on the orders of the interim government.[46] Many Twa were also killed, despite not being directly targeted.[39] The Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, and took control of the country methodically, gaining control of the whole country by mid-July.[47] The international response to the Genocide was limited, with major powers reluctant to strengthen the already overstretched UN peacekeeping force.[48] When the RPF took over, approximately two million Hutu fled to neighbouring countries, in particular Zaire, fearing reprisals;[49] additionally, the RPF-led army was a key belligerent in the First and Second Congo Wars.[50] Within Rwanda, a period of reconciliation and justice began, with the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the reintroduction of Gacaca, a traditional village court system. During the 2000s Rwanda's economy, tourist numbers and Human Development Index grew rapidly;[51][52] between 2006 and 2011 the poverty rate reduced from 57% to 45%,[53] and child mortality rates dropped from 180 per 1000 live births in 2000 to 111 per 1000 in 2009.[54]

    Rwanda Politics and government

    Photograph of Paul Kagame, taken in New York in 2010
    Rwandan President Paul Kagame

    The President of Rwanda is the head of state,[55] and has broad powers including creating policy in conjunction with the Cabinet,[56] exercising the prerogative of mercy,[57] commanding the armed forces,[58] negotiating and ratifying treaties,[59] signing presidential orders,[60] and declaring war or a state of emergency.[58] The President is elected by popular vote every seven years,[61] and appoints the Prime Minister and all other members of Cabinet.[62] The incumbent President is Paul Kagame, who took office upon the resignation of his predecessor, Pasteur Bizimungu, in 2000. Kagame subsequently won elections in 2003 and 2010,[63][64] although human rights organisations have criticised these elections as being "marked by increasing political repression and a crackdown on free speech".[65]

    The current constitution was adopted following a national referendum in 2003, replacing the transitional constitution which had been in place since 1994.[66] The constitution mandates a multi-party system of government, with politics based on democracy and elections.[67] However, the constitution places conditions on how political parties may operate. Article 54 states that "political organizations are prohibited from basing themselves on race, ethnic group, tribe, clan, region, sex, religion or any other division which may give rise to discrimination".[68] The government has also enacted laws criminalising genocide ideology, which can include intimidation, defamatory speeches, genocide denial and mocking of victims.[69] According to Human Rights Watch, these laws effectively make Rwanda a one-party state, as "under the guise of preventing another genocide, the government displays a marked intolerance of the most basic forms of dissent".[70] Amnesty International is also critical, saying that genocide ideology laws have been used to "silence dissent, including criticisms of the ruling RPF party and demands for justice for RPF war crimes".[71]

    The Parliament consists of two chambers. It makes legislation and is empowered by the constitution to oversee the activities of the President and the Cabinet.[72] The lower chamber is the Chamber of Deputies, which has 80 members serving five-year terms. Twenty-four of these seats are reserved for women, elected through a joint assembly of local government officials; another three seats are reserved for youth and disabled members; the remaining 53 are elected by universal suffrage under a proportional representation system.[73] Following the 2008 election, there are 45 female deputies, making Rwanda the only country with a female majority in the national parliament.[74] The upper chamber is the 26-seat Senate, whose members are selected by a variety of bodies. A mandatory minimum of 30% of the senators are women. Senators serve eight-year terms.[75]

    Rwanda's legal system is largely based on [82]

    Rwanda has low corruption levels relative to most other African countries; in 2010, Transparency International ranked Rwanda as the eighth cleanest out of 47 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and 66th cleanest out of 178 in the world.[83] The constitution provides for an Ombudsman, whose duties include prevention and fighting of corruption.[84][85] Public officials (including the President) are required by the constitution to declare their wealth to the Ombudsman and to the public; those who do not comply are suspended from office.[86]

    The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) has been the dominant political party in the country since 1994. The RPF has maintained control of the presidency and the Parliament in national elections, with the party's vote share consistently exceeding 70%. The RPF is seen as a Tutsi-dominated party but receives support from across the country, and is credited with ensuring continued peace, stability, and economic growth.[87] Human rights organisations, including Amnesty International and Freedom House, claim that the government suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by restricting candidacies in elections to government-friendly parties, suppressing demonstrations, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists.[71][88]

    Rwanda is a member of the United Nations,[89] African Union, Francophonie,[90] East African Community,[91] and the Commonwealth of Nations.[92] For many years during the Habyarimana regime, the country maintained close ties with France, as well as Belgium, the former colonial power.[93] Under the RPF government, however, Rwanda has sought closer ties with neighbouring countries in East Africa and with the English-speaking world. Diplomatic relations with France were suspended between 2006 and 2010 following the indictment of Rwandan officials by a French judge.[94] Relations with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were tense following Rwanda's involvement in the First and Second Congo Wars;[50] the Congolese army alleged Rwandan attacks on their troops, while Rwanda blamed the Congolese government for failing to suppress Hutu rebels in North and South Kivu provinces.[95][96] Rwanda's relationship with Uganda was also tense for much of the 2000s following a 1999 clash between the two countries' armies as they backed opposing rebel groups in the Second Congo War.[97] As of 2012, relations with both Uganda and the DRC are improved.[97][98]

    Rwanda Environmental policy

    For several years now, the Government of Rwanda has shown sustained efforts to integrate environmental concerns into core national development policies. According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network and SouthSouthNorth, the government has developed a climate change strategy and established an environmental fund through which to finance its implementation.[99]

    Rwanda Administrative divisions

    Map of Rwanda showing the five provinces in various colours, as well as major cities, lakes, rivers, and areas of neighbouring countries
    Provinces of Rwanda

    Rwanda has been governed by a strict hierarchy since precolonial times.[100] Before colonisation, the King (Mwami) exercised control through a system of provinces, districts, hills, and neighbourhoods.[101] The current constitution divides Rwanda into provinces (intara), districts (uturere), cities, municipalities, towns, sectors (imirenge), cells (utugari), and villages (imidugudu); the larger divisions, and their borders, are established by Parliament.[102]

    The five provinces act as intermediaries between the national government and their constituent districts to ensure that national policies are implemented at the district level. The "Rwanda Decentralisation Strategic Framework" developed by the Ministry of Local Government assigns to provinces the responsibility for "coordinating governance issues in the Province, as well as monitoring and evaluation."[103] Each province is headed by a governor, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.[104] The districts are responsible for coordinating public service delivery and economic development. They are divided into sectors, which are responsible for the delivery of public services as mandated by the districts.[105] Districts and sectors have directly elected councils, and are run by an executive committee selected by that council.[106] The cells and villages are the smallest political units, providing a link between the people and the sectors.[105] All adult resident citizens are members of their local cell council, from which an executive committee is elected.[106] The city of Kigali is a provincial-level authority, which coordinates urban planning within the city.[103]

    The present borders were drawn in 2006 with the aim of decentralising power and removing associations with the old system and the genocide. The previous structure of twelve provinces centred around the largest cities was replaced with five provinces based primarily on geography.[107] These are Northern Province, Southern Province, Eastern Province, Western Province, and the Municipality of Kigali in the centre.

    Rwanda Geography

    Photograph of confluence of the Kagera and the Ruvubu, with the Rwanda-Tanzania border post in foreground, taken from a nearby hilltop
    The Kagera and Ruvubu rivers, part of the upper Nile

    At 26,338 square kilometres (10,169 sq mi), Rwanda is the world's 149th-largest country.[108] It is comparable in size to Haiti or the state of Maryland in the United States.[76][109] The entire country is at a high altitude: the lowest point is the Rusizi River at 950 metres (3,117 ft) above sea level.[76] Rwanda is located in Central/Eastern Africa, and is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, and Burundi to the south.[76] It lies a few degrees south of the equator and is landlocked.[94] The capital, Kigali, is located near the centre of Rwanda.[110]

    The [115]

    Photograph of a lake with one of the Virunga mountains behind, partially in cloud
    Lake and volcano in the Virunga Mountains

    Mountains dominate central and western Rwanda; these mountains are part of the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the Albertine branch of the East African Rift; this branch runs from north to south along Rwanda's western border.[116] The highest peaks are found in the Virunga volcano chain in the northwest; this includes Mount Karisimbi, Rwanda's highest point, at 4,507 metres (14,787 ft).[117] This western section of the country, which lies within the Albertine Rift montane forests ecoregion,[116] has an elevation of 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) to 2,500 metres (8,202 ft).[118] The centre of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while the eastern border region consists of savanna, plains and swamps.[119]

    Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries because of its high elevation.[94] Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily temperature range between 12 °C (54 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F), with little variation through the year.[120] There are some temperature variations across the country; the mountainous west and north are generally cooler than the lower-lying east.[121] There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from February to June and the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which there is often no rain at all, and a shorter and less severe one from December to February.[122] Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually than the east and southeast.[123]Global warming has caused a change in the pattern of the rainy seasons. According to a report by the Strategic foresight Group, "at times, the total number of annual rainy days is reduced with short periods of more intense rainfall. Other times, frequent torrential rainfall on a daily basis exceeds the total monthly quantity. Also, there are times when there is a late onset of rainfall or an early cessation of the same."[124]

    Climate data for Kigali, Rwanda
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Average high °C (°F) 26.9
    Average low °C (°F) 15.6
    Precipitation mm (inches) 76.9
    Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11 11 15 18 13 2 1 4 10 17 17 14 133
    Source: World Meteorological Organization [125]

    Rwanda Biodiversity

    Photograph depicting four Topis on a hillside in Akagera, with another hill and a lake visible in the background
    Topis in Akagera National Park

    In prehistoric times montane forest occupied one-third of the territory of present-day Rwanda. Naturally occurring vegetation is now mostly restricted to the three National Parks, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of the country.[126] Nyungwe, the largest remaining tract of forest, contains 200 species of tree as well as orchids and begonias.[127] Vegetation in the Volcanoes National Park is mostly bamboo and moorland, with small areas of forest.[126] By contrast, Akagera has a savanna ecosystem in which acacia dominates the flora. There are several rare or endangered plant species in Akagera, including Markhamia lutea and Eulophia guineensis.[128]

    The greatest diversity of large mammals is found in the three National Parks, which are designated conservation areas.[129] Akagera contains typical savanna animals such as giraffes and elephants,[130] while Volcanoes is home to an estimated one-third of the worldwide mountain gorilla population.[131] Nyungwe Forest boasts thirteen primate species including chimpanzees and Ruwenzori colobus arboreal monkeys; the Ruwenzori colobus move in groups of up to 400 individuals, the largest troop size of any primate in Africa.[132]

    There are 670 bird species in Rwanda, with variation between the east and the west.[133] Nyungwe Forest, in the west, has 280 recorded species, of which 26 are endemic to the Albertine Rift;[133] endemic species include the Ruwenzori Turaco and Handsome Francolin.[134] Eastern Rwanda, by contrast, features savanna birds such as the Black-headed Gonolek and those associated with swamps and lakes, including storks and cranes.[133]

    Rwanda Economy

    Photograph of four drying racks containing white coloured unroasted coffee beans
    Coffee beans drying in Maraba. Coffee is one of Rwanda's major cash crops.

    Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Genocide, with widespread loss of life, failure to maintain the infrastructure, looting, and neglect of important cash crops. This caused a large drop in GDP and destroyed the country's ability to attract private and external investment.[76] The economy has since strengthened, with per-capita GDP (PPP) estimated at $1,592 in 2013,[3] compared with $416 in 1994.[135] Major export markets include China, Germany, and the United States.[76] The economy is managed by the central National Bank of Rwanda and the currency is the Rwandan franc; in June 2010, the exchange rate was 588 francs to the United States dollar.[136] Rwanda joined the East African Community in 2007 and there are plans for a common East African shilling, which could be in place by 2015.[137]

    Rwanda is a country of few natural resources,[94] and the economy is based mostly on subsistence agriculture by local farmers using simple tools.[138] An estimated 90% of the working population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 42.1% of GDP in 2010.[76] Since the mid-1980s, farm sizes and food production have been decreasing, due in part to the resettlement of displaced people.[139][140] Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, and food imports are required.[76]

    Crops grown in the country include coffee, tea, pyrethrum, bananas, beans, sorghum and potatoes. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export, with the high altitudes, steep slopes and volcanic soils providing favourable conditions. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Rwanda vulnerable to shifts in their prices.[141] Animals raised in Rwanda include cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chicken, and rabbits, with geographical variation in the numbers of each.[142] Production systems are mostly traditional, although there are a few intensive dairy farms around Kigali.[142] Shortages of land and water, insufficient and poor-quality feed, and regular disease epidemics with insufficient veterinary services are major constraints that restrict output. Fishing takes place on the country's lakes, but stocks are very depleted, and live fish are being imported in an attempt to revive the industry.[143]

    The industrial sector is small, contributing 14.3% of GDP in 2010.[76] Products manufactured include cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles and cigarettes.[76] Rwanda's mining industry is an important contributor, generating US$93 million in 2008.[144] Minerals mined include cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.[144][145]

    Photograph depicting female adult gorilla with a baby on her shoulders, surrounded by green foliage
    Mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park

    Rwanda's service sector suffered during the late-2000s recession as banks reduced lending and foreign aid projects and investment were reduced.[146] The sector rebounded in 2010, becoming the country's largest sector by economic output and contributing 43.6% of the country's GDP.[76] Key tertiary contributors include banking and finance, wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants, transport, storage, communication, insurance, real estate, business services and public administration including education and health.[146] Tourism is one of the fastest-growing economic resources and became the country's leading foreign exchange earner in 2011.[147] In spite of the genocide's legacy, the country is increasingly perceived internationally as a safe destination;[148] The Directorate of Immigration and Emigration recorded 405,801 people visiting the country between January and June 2011; 16% of these arrived from outside Africa.[149] Revenue from tourism was US$115.6 million between January and June 2011; holidaymakers contributed 43% of this revenue, despite being only 9% of the numbers.[149] Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely; gorilla tracking, in the Volcanoes National Park, attracts thousands of visitors per year, who are prepared to pay high prices for permits.[150] Other attractions include Nyungwe Forest, home to chimpanzees, Ruwenzori colobus and other primates, the resorts of Lake Kivu, and Akagera, a small savanna reserve in the east of the country.[151]

    Rwanda Media and communications

    The largest radio and television stations are state-run. Most Rwandans have access to radio and [153]

    Rwandatel is the country's oldest telecommunications group, providing landlines to 23,000 subscribers, mostly government institutions, banks, NGOs and embassies.[154] Private landline subscription levels are low. As of 2013, mobile phone penetration in the country is 57%,[155] up from 35% in 2011.[156] The leading provider is MTN, with around 2.5 million subscribers, followed by Tigo with 700,000.[156] A third mobile phone service, run by Bharti Airtel, launched in March 2012.[157] Rwandatel also operated a mobile phone network, but the industry regulator revoked its licence in April 2011, following the company's failure to meet agreed investment commitments.[158] Internet penetration is low but rising rapidly; in 2010 there were 7.7 internet users per 100 people, up from 2.1 in 2007.[159] In 2011, a 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi) fibre-optic telecommunications network was completed, intended to provide broadband services and facilitate electronic commerce.[160] This network is connected to SEACOM, a submarine fibre-optic cable connecting communication carriers in southern and eastern Africa. Within Rwanda the cables run along major roads, linking towns around the country.[160] Mobile provider MTN also runs a wireless internet service accessible in most areas of Kigali via pre-paid subscription.[161]

    Rwanda Infrastructure

    Photograph depicting one adult and five children filling jerrycans at a rural metal water pump with concrete base, at the bottom of a steep rocky hillside
    Rural water pump

    The Rwandan government prioritised funding of water supply development during the 2000s, significantly increasing its share of the national budget.[162] This funding, along with donor support, caused a rapid increase in access to safe water; in 2008, 73% of the population had access to safe water, up from about 55% in 2005.[162] The country's water infrastructure consists of urban and rural systems which deliver water to the public, mainly through standpipes in rural areas and private connections in urban areas. In areas not served by these systems, hand pumps and managed springs are used.[163] Despite rainfall exceeding 100 centimetres (39 in) annually in many areas,[120] little use is made of rainwater harvesting.[163] Access to sanitation remains low; the United Nations estimates that in 2006, 34% of urban and 20% of rural dwellers had access to improved sanitation.[164] Government policy measures to improve sanitation are limited, focusing only on urban areas.[164] The majority of the population, both urban and rural, use public shared pit latrines for sanitation.[164]

    Rwanda's electricity supply was, until the early 2000s, generated almost entirely from [168]

    The government has increased investment in the transport infrastructure of Rwanda since the 1994 Genocide, with aid from the United States, European Union, Japan, and others. The transport system centres primarily around the road network, with paved roads between Kigali and most other major cities and towns in the country.[169] Rwanda is linked by road to other countries in East Africa, such as Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and Kenya, as well as to the eastern Congolese cities of Goma and Bukavu; the country's most important trade route is the road to the port of Mombasa via Kampala and Nairobi.[170] The principal form of public transport in the country is the shared taxi. Express routes link the major cities and local service is offered to most villages along the main roads. Coach services are available to various destinations in neighbouring countries. The country has an international airport at Kigali that serves one domestic and several international destinations.[171] As of 2011 the country has no railways, although funding has been secured for a feasibility study into extending the Tanzanian Central Line into Rwanda.[172] There is no public water transport between the port cities on Lake Kivu, although a limited private service exists and the government has initiated a programme to encourage development of a full service.[169]

    Rwanda Demographics

    Photograph depicting seven rural children, with a straw house and farmland in the background, taken in the Volcanoes National Park in 2005
    Rural children

    In 2012, estimates place Rwanda's population at 11,689,696.[76] The population is young: an estimated 42.7% are under the age of 15, and 97.5% are under 65. The annual birth rate is estimated at 40.2 births per 1,000 inhabitants, and the death rate at 14.9.[76] The life expectancy is 58.02 years (59.52 years for females and 56.57 years for males), which is the 30th lowest out of 221 countries and territories.[76][173] The sex ratio of the country is relatively even.[76]

    At 408 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,060 /sq mi), Rwanda's population density is amongst the highest in Africa. Historians such as Gérard Prunier believe that the 1994 genocide can be partly attributed to the population density.[40] The population is predominantly rural, with a few large towns; dwellings are evenly spread throughout the country.[94] The only sparsely populated area of the country is the savanna land in the former province of Umutara and Akagera National Park in the east.[174] Kigali is the largest city, with a population of around one million.[175] Its rapidly increasing population challenges its infrastructural development.[76][176][177] Other notable towns are Gitarama, Butare, and Gisenyi, all with populations below 100,000.[178] The urban population rose from 6% of the population in 1990,[176] to 16.6% in 2006;[179] by 2011, however, the proportion had dropped slightly, to 14.8%.[179]

    Rwanda has been a unified state since pre-colonial times,[30] and the population is drawn from just one ethnic and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda;[180] this contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders were drawn by colonial powers and did not correspond to ethnic boundaries or pre-colonial kingdoms.[181] Within the Banyarwanda people, there are three separate groups, the Hutu (84% of the population as of 2009), Tutsi (15%) and Twa (1%).[182][76] The Twa are a pygmy people who descend from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants, but scholars do not agree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi.[183] Anthropologist Jean Hiernaux contends that the Tutsi are a separate race, with a tendency towards "long and narrow heads, faces and noses";[184] others, such as Villia Jefremovas, believe there is no discernible physical difference and the categories were not historically rigid.[185] In precolonial Rwanda the Tutsi were the ruling class, from whom the Kings and the majority of chiefs were derived, while the Hutu were agriculturalists.[186] The current government discourages the Hutu/Tutsi/Twa distinction, and has removed such classification from identity cards.[187]

    Photograph depicting the Roman Catholic parish church in Rwamagana, Eastern Province, including the main entrance, façade, the separate bell tower, and dirt forecourt
    Roman Catholic church in Rwamagana

    The majority of Rwandans are Catholic, but there have been significant changes in the nation's religious demographics since the Genocide, with many conversions to Evangelical Christian faiths and Islam.[188] As of 2006, Catholics represented 56.5% of the population, Protestants 37.1% (of whom 11.1% were Seventh Day Adventists) and Muslims 4.6%.[189] 1.7% claimed no religious beliefs.[189] Traditional religion, despite officially being followed by only 0.1% of the population, retains an influence. Many Rwandans view the Christian God as synonymous with the traditional Rwandan God Imana.[190]

    The country's principal language is [193]

    Rwanda Culture

    Photograph depicting two male dancers with straw wigs, neck garments, spears and sticks
    Traditional Rwandan intore dancers

    Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings and storytelling. The most famous traditional dance is a highly choreographed routine consisting of three components: the [199]

    Photograph depicting a bowl shaped off-white woven basket with tall conical lid and black zigzag pattern
    Rwandan woven basket

    Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, although most originated as functional items rather than purely for decoration. Woven baskets and bowls are especially common.[204]

    Rwanda does not have a long history of written literature, but there is a strong oral tradition ranging from poetry to folk stories. Many of the country's moral values and details of history have been passed down through the generations. The most famous Rwandan literary figure was Alexis Kagame (1912–1981), who carried out and published research into oral traditions as well as writing his own poetry.[205] The Rwandan Genocide resulted in the emergence a literature of witness accounts, essays and fiction by a new generation of writers such as Benjamin Sehene. A number of films have been produced about the Rwandan Genocide, including the Golden Globe-nominated Hotel Rwanda, Shake Hands with the Devil, Sometimes in April, and Shooting Dogs, the last two having been filmed in Rwanda and having featured survivors as cast members.[206]

    Eleven regular [209]

    Rwanda Cuisine

    The cuisine of Rwanda is based on local [212]

    Rwanda Sport

    Internationally, Rwanda's athletes made most headlines in basketball, where the national team qualified for the final stages of the African Basketball Championship four times in a row and put in bids to host this event.[216]

    Rwanda Education and health

    Photograph depicting 18 female school children with white and grey uniforms, and a male teacher with orange shirt and hat, with white tiled sink and surfaces and windows in background
    Pupils at a Rwandan secondary school

    The Rwandan government provides free education in state-run schools for nine years: six years in primary and three years following a common secondary programme.[223]

    Photograph depicting a hospital building, with Rwandan flag, viewed from the entrance pathway
    A hospital at Butaro, Northern Province

    The quality of healthcare is generally low, but improving. In 2010, 91 children died before their fifth birthday for every 1000 live births,[232]

    Rwanda See also

    Rwanda Notes

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    9. ^ a b c Mamdani 2002, p. 61.
    10. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 58.
    11. ^ a b King 2007, p. 75.
    12. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 16.
    13. ^ Mamdani 2002, p. 58.
    14. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 69.
    15. ^ Shyaka, pp. 10–11.
    16. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 88.
    17. ^ a b Chrétien 2003, pp. 88–89.
    18. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 141.
    19. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 482.
    20. ^ a b Chrétien 2003, p. 160.
    21. ^ a b c Mamdani 2002, p. 69.
    22. ^ Prunier 1995, pp. 13–14.
    23. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 6.
    24. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 217.
    25. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 9.
    26. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 25.
    27. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 260.
    28. ^ Chrétien 2003, p. 270.
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    30. ^ a b Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 450.
    31. ^ Gourevitch 2000, pp. 56–57.
    32. ^ United Nations (II).
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    35. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 51.
    36. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 53.
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    41. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 93.
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    44. ^ BBC News (III) 2010.
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    46. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 386.
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    50. ^ a b BBC News (VI) 2010.
    51. ^ UNDP (III) 2010.
    52. ^ RDB (I) 2009.
    53. ^ National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda 2012.
    54. ^ United Nations Statistics Division.
    55. ^ CJCR 2003, article 98.
    56. ^ CJCR 2003, article 117.
    57. ^ CJCR 2003, article 111.
    58. ^ a b CJCR 2003, article 110.
    59. ^ CJCR 2003, article 189.
    60. ^ CJCR 2003, article 112.
    61. ^ CJCR 2003, articles 100–101.
    62. ^ CJCR 2003, article 116.
    63. ^ Lacey 2003.
    64. ^ BBC News (IV) 2010.
    65. ^ HRW 2010.
    66. ^ Media High Council.
    67. ^ CJCR 2003, article 52.
    68. ^ CJCR 2003, article 54.
    69. ^ National Commission for the Fight against Genocide 2008, p. 1.
    70. ^ Roth 2009.
    71. ^ a b Amnesty International 2010.
    72. ^ CJCR 2003, article 62.
    73. ^ CJCR 2003, article 76.
    74. ^ UNIFEM 2008.
    75. ^ CJCR 2003, article 82.
    76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q CIA (I).
    77. ^ CJCR 2003, article 140.
    78. ^ CJCR 2003, article 148.
    79. ^ HRW & Wells 2008, I. Summary.
    80. ^ HRW & Wells 2008, VIII. Independence of the Judiciary.
    81. ^ CJCR 2003, article 143.
    82. ^ Walker March 2004.
    83. ^ Transparency International 2010.
    84. ^ CJCR 2003, article 182.
    85. ^ Office of the Ombudsman.
    86. ^ Asiimwe 2011.
    87. ^ Clark 2010.
    88. ^ Freedom House 2011.
    89. ^ United Nations (I).
    90. ^ Francophonie.
    91. ^ Grainger 2007.
    92. ^ Fletcher 2009.
    93. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 89.
    94. ^ a b c d e Department of State (III) 2012.
    95. ^ USA Today 2008.
    96. ^ Al Jazeera 2007.
    97. ^ a b Heuler 2011.
    98. ^ BBC News (VII) 2011.
    99. ^ Rwanda: Pioneering steps towards a climate resilient green economy Jean-Pierre Roux, Climate and Development Outlook, Edition eight, September 2013.
    100. ^ OAU 2000, p. 14.
    101. ^ Melvern 2004, p. 5.
    102. ^ CJCR 2003, article 3.
    103. ^ a b MINALOC 2007, p. 8.
    104. ^ Southern Province.
    105. ^ a b MINALOC 2007, p. 9.
    106. ^ a b MINALOC 2004.
    107. ^ BBC News (I) 2006.
    108. ^ CIA (II).
    109. ^ Richards 1994.
    110. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 2010.
    111. ^ Nile Basin Initiative 2010.
    112. ^ BBC News (II) 2006.
    113. ^ Jørgensen 2005, p. 93.
    114. ^ Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 153.
    115. ^ Global Nature Fund.
    116. ^ a b WWF 2001, Location and General Description.
    117. ^ Mehta & Katee 2005, p. 37.
    118. ^ Munyakazi & Ntagaramba 2005, p. 7.
    119. ^ Munyakazi & Ntagaramba 2005, p. 18.
    120. ^ a b BBC Weather, Average Conditions.
    121. ^ Best Country Reports 2007.
    122. ^ King 2007, p. 10.
    123. ^ Adekunle 2007, p. 1.
    124. ^ Blue Peace for the Nile, 2009, Strategic Foresight Group
    125. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Kigali". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
    126. ^ a b Briggs & Booth 2006, pp. 3–4.
    127. ^ King 2007, p. 11.
    128. ^ REMA (Chapter 5) 2009, p. 3.
    129. ^ IUCN 2011.
    130. ^ Embassy of Rwanda in Japan.
    131. ^ RDB (II) 2010.
    132. ^ Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 140.
    133. ^ a b c King 2007, p. 15.
    134. ^ WCS.
    135. ^ IMF (I).
    136. ^ Namata 2010.
    137. ^ Lavelle 2008.
    138. ^ FAO / WFP 1997.
    139. ^ WRI 2006.
    140. ^ Department of State (I) 2004.
    141. ^ WTO 2004.
    142. ^ a b MINAGRI 2006.
    143. ^ Namata 2008.
    144. ^ a b Mukaaya 2009.
    145. ^ Delawala 2001.
    146. ^ a b Nantaba 2010.
    147. ^ Birakwate 2012.
    148. ^ Nielsen & Spenceley 2010, p. 6.
    149. ^ a b RDB (III) 2011.
    150. ^ Nielsen & Spenceley 2010, p. 2.
    151. ^ RDB (IV).
    152. ^ a b BBC News (V) 2011, Media.
    153. ^ Reporters Without Borders 2010.
    154. ^ Majyambere 2010.
    155. ^ BiztechAfrica 2013.
    156. ^ a b Butera March 2011.
    157. ^ India Tech Online 2012.
    158. ^ Butera April 2011.
    159. ^ World Bank (II).
    160. ^ a b Reuters 2011.
    161. ^ Butera 2010.
    162. ^ a b IDA 2009.
    163. ^ a b MINECOFIN 2002, pp. 25–26.
    164. ^ a b c USAID 2008, p. 3.
    165. ^ World Resources Report 2011, p. 3.
    166. ^ a b c World Resources Report 2011, p. 5.
    167. ^ AfDB 2011.
    168. ^ MININFRA 2009.
    169. ^ a b AfDB & OECD Development Centre 2006, p. 439.
    170. ^ TTCA 2004.
    171. ^ RwandAir.
    172. ^ AfDB 2009.
    173. ^ CIA (III) 2011.
    174. ^ Streissguth 2007, p. 11.
    175. ^ Kigali City.
    176. ^ a b Percival & Homer-Dixon 1995.
    177. ^ REMA (Chapter 2) 2009.
    178. ^ National Census Service 2003, p. 26.
    179. ^ a b National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda 2012, p. 29.
    180. ^ Mamdani 2002, p. 52.
    181. ^ Boyd 1979, p. 1.
    182. ^ Prunier 1995, p. 5.
    183. ^ Mamdani 2002, pp. 46–47.
    184. ^ Mamdani 2002, p. 47.
    185. ^ Jefremovas 1995.
    186. ^ Prunier 1995, pp. 11–12.
    187. ^ Coleman 2010.
    188. ^ Walker April 2004.
    189. ^ a b Department of State (II) 2007.
    190. ^ Wiredu et al. 2006, pp. 236–237.
    191. ^ a b Université Laval 2010.
    192. ^ a b Samuelson & Freedman 2010.
    193. ^ Nakayima 2010.
    194. ^ a b Rwanda Development Gateway.
    195. ^ RMCA.
    196. ^ Briggs 2004.
    197. ^ Adekunle 2007, pp. 135–136.
    198. ^ Adekunle 2007, p. 139.
    199. ^ Mbabazi 2008.
    200. ^ Adekunle 2007, pp. 68–70.
    201. ^ Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 243–244.
    202. ^ Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 31.
    203. ^ Ntambara 2009.
    204. ^ Adekunle 2007, p. 75.
    205. ^ Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 29.
    206. ^ Milmo 2006.
    207. ^ Embassy of Rwanda in Sudan.
    208. ^ Directorate General of Immigration and Emigration, p. 5.
    209. ^ Gahindiro 2008.
    210. ^ a b c Adekunle 2007, p. 81.
    211. ^ a b c Adekunle 2007, p. 13.
    212. ^ a b Auzias 2007, p. 74.
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    214. ^ Anyango 2010.
    215. ^ Nzabuheraheza 2005.
    216. ^ Rwanda to bid for 2013 FIBA Africa Championship, The New Times (Kigali), Retrieved 2012-07-12.
    217. ^ MINEDUC 2010, p. 2.
    218. ^ Musoni 2010.
    219. ^ a b c Briggs & Booth 2006, p. 27.
    220. ^ McGreal 2009.
    221. ^ World Bank (III).
    222. ^ World Bank (I).
    223. ^
    224. ^ a b UNICEF 2012.
    225. ^ Kabalira 2012.
    226. ^ a b WHO 2009, p. 10.
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    228. ^ KHI 2012.
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    231. ^ a b WHO 2009, p. 4.
    232. ^ a b WHO 2009, p. 5.

    Rwanda References

    Rwanda External links




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