SAXE-WEIMAR

Saxe|Weimar Eisenach Sachsen|Weimar Bernhard of Saxe Weimar Duke of Saxe Weimar Princess Ernestine of Saxe Weimar Weimar Saxophone Augusta of Saxe Weimar Eisenach




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| Saxe-Weimar Eisenach | Sachsen-Weimar | Bernhard of Saxe Weimar | Duke of Saxe Weimar | Princess Ernestine of Saxe Weimar | Weimar Saxophone | Augusta of Saxe Weimar Eisenach |

| Saxe-Weimar | House_of_Wettin | Grand_Duchy_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Ernest_Augustus_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Charles_Frederick,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Charles_Alexander,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Ernest_Augustus_II,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Prince_Bernhard_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Frederick_William_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | William,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_II,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_Frederick,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | Princess_Marie_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Karl_August,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Princess_Ernestine_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_Ernest_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | Prince_Wilhelm_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach |

  1. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach - A grand duchy in Thuringia, also known in recent times as the Grand duchy of Saxony.


  2. [ Link Deletion Request ]

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    Saxe-Weimar


    Duchy of Saxe-Weimar
    Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar
    State of the Holy Roman Empire, then
    State of the Confederation of the Rhine
    Electorate of Saxony
    1572–1809 Flag of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
    Flag Coat of arms
         Saxe-Weimar, shown within the other Ernestine duchies and      Saxe-Jena, joined to Saxe-Weimar in 1690
    Capital Weimar
    Government Feudal monarchy
    Historical era Early modern period
     -  Division of Erfurt 1572
     -  Split off
        Saxe-Altenburg
     
    1602
     -  Split off
         Eisenach and Gotha
     
    1640
     -  Split off Saxe-Jena,
        and Saxe-Eisenach
     
    1672
     -  United with
        Saxe-Eisenach
    1741
     -  Merged to form
        Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
      1809

    Saxe-Weimar (House of Wettin.


    Saxe-Weimar History



    Saxe-Weimar Division of Leipzig

    In the late 15th century much of what is now Thuringia, including the area around Weimar, was held by the Wettin Electors of Saxony. According to the 1485 Treaty of Leipzig, the Wettin lands had been divided between Elector Ernest of Saxony and his younger brother Albert III, with the western lands in Thuringia together with the electoral dignity going to the Ernestine branch of the family.

    Weimar Castle

    Ernest's grandson Elector John Frederick I of Saxony forfeited the electoral dignity in the 1547 Capitulation of Wittenberg, after he had joined the revolt of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, was defeated, captured and banned. Nevertheless according to the 1552 Peace of Passau he was pardoned and allowed to retain his lands in Thuringia. Upon his death in 1554, his son John Frederick II succeeded him as "Duke of Saxony", residing at Gotha. His attempts to regain the electoral dignity failed: in the course of the 1566 revolt instigated by the robber baron Wilhelm von Grumbach, the duke was banned and imprisoned for life by Emperor Maximilian II.


    Saxe-Weimar Division of Erfurt

    John Frederick II was succeeded by his younger brother John William at Weimar, who in short time also fell out of favour with the emperor by his alliance with King Charles IX of France. In 1572 Maximilian II enforced the Division of Erfurt, whereby the Ernestine lands were divided among Duke John William and the two surviving sons of imprisoned John Frederick II. John William retained the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, while his minor nephews received the southern and western territories around Coburg and Eisenach.

    This division was the first of numerous partitions; over the next three centuries the lands were divided when dukes had more than one son to provide for, and re-combined when dukes died without direct heirs, but all of the lands stayed in the Ernestine branch of the Wettin family. As a result, the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar shrank and grew more than once. The Thuringian states throughout this period typically consisted of several non-contiguous parcels of territory of various sizes. Facing their lack of political power, the rulers of these petty states built up splendid monarchical households at their residences and pursued greater cultural achievements.

    Duke John William, chafing under the loss, died in 1573, succeeded by his son Frederick William I. Upon his death in 1602 Saxe-Weimar was again divided among his younger brother John II and Frederick William's minor son John Philipp, who received the territory of Saxe-Altenburg. John's son Duke Johann Ernst I of Saxe-Weimar on occasion of the burial of his mother Dorothea Maria of Anhalt in 1617 established the literary Fruitbearing Society.


    Saxe-Weimar Thirty Years' War

    At the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, Duke Johann Ernst I supported the Protestant Bohemian estates under the "Winter King" Frederick V of the Palatinate, who were defeated at the 1620 Battle of White Mountain. Stripped off his title by Emperor Ferdinand II, he remained a fierce opponent of the Catholic Habsburg dynasty and died on Ernst von Mansfeld's Hungarian campaign in 1626.

    His younger brother Wilhelm, regent since 1620, assumed the dignities upon his death. At first also an advocate of Protestant concerns, after the death of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden he chose to accord with the 1635 Peace of Prague his Albertine cousins had negotiated with the emperor - against the opposition of his younger brother General Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, who entered into the French service under Cardinal Richelieu. Nevertheless, likewise many German estates, the Weimar lands were devastated by combat actions as well as by plague epidemics.

    When in 1638 the Ernestine Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Coburg branch became extinct upon the death of Duke John Ernest, Wilhelm of Saxe-Weimar inherited large parts of his estates. In 1640 however he had to involve his younger brothers Ernest I and Albert IV, thereby (re-)establishing the Duchies of Saxe-Gotha and short-lived Saxe-Eisenach, which was again dissolved upon Duke Albert's death in 1644.

    Another rearrangement of the Ernestine lands took place in 1672 after Duke Frederick William III of Saxe-Altenburg, descendant of Duke John Phillip, had died without heirs and his cousin Duke Johann Ernst II of Saxe-Weimar inherited parts of his duchy, which originally had been split off the Saxe-Weimar territory in 1602. Johann Ernst II immediately divided the enlarged Saxe-Weimar lands between himself and his younger brothers John George I and Bernhard II, who received the Duchies of Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Jena, which fell back to Saxe-Weimar upon the death of Bernhard's son Duke Johann Wilhelm in 1690.


    Saxe-Weimar Weimar Classicism

    Theobald von Oer: The Weimar Court of the Muses (1860); Schiller reads at Schloss Tiefurt, Wieland, Herder and Goethe among the listeners

    Upon the death of John George's descendant Wilhelm Heinrich in 1741, Duke Ernest Augustus I of Saxe-Weimar also inherited the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach. He then ruled both duchies in personal union and decisively forwarded the development of his estates by the implementation of the primogeniture principle.

    His son Ernest Augustus II, who succeeded him in 1748, died in 1758, whereafter Empress Maria Theresa appointed his young widow, Duchess Anna Amalia, regent of the country and guardian of her infant son, Charles Augustus. The regency of energetic Anna Amalia and the reign of Charles Augustus, who was raised by the writer Christoph Martin Wieland, formed a high point in the history of Saxe-Weimar. Both intelligent patrons of literature and art, Anna Amalia and Charles Augustus attracted to their court the leading German scholars, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller and Johann Gottfried Herder, and made their residence Weimar an important cultural center in an era referred to as Weimar Classicism.

    In 1804 Duke Charles Augustus entered into European politics by marrying his son and heir Charles Frederick to Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, sister of Emperor Alexander I of Russia. However, at the same time he joined Prussia in the War of the Fourth Coalition against the French Empire, and after the defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt was forced to accede the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. In 1809 Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been united only in the person of the duke, were formally merged into the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.


    Saxe-Weimar Dukes of Saxe-Weimar


    Merged with Saxe-Eisenach to form Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach


    Saxe-Weimar See also



    Saxe-Weimar References


    • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press 
    • Saxe-Weimar, The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press (2001–2005), accessed December 22, 2005

    Saxe-Weimar External links




    Saxe|Weimar Eisenach Sachsen|Weimar Bernhard of Saxe Weimar Duke of Saxe Weimar Princess Ernestine of Saxe Weimar Weimar Saxophone Augusta of Saxe Weimar Eisenach

    | Saxe-Weimar Eisenach | Sachsen-Weimar | Bernhard of Saxe Weimar | Duke of Saxe Weimar | Princess Ernestine of Saxe Weimar | Weimar Saxophone | Augusta of Saxe Weimar Eisenach | Saxe-Weimar | House_of_Wettin | Grand_Duchy_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Ernest_Augustus_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Charles_Frederick,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Charles_Alexander,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Ernest_Augustus_II,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Prince_Bernhard_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Frederick_William_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | William,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_II,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_Frederick,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | Princess_Marie_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Karl_August,_Grand_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach | Princess_Ernestine_of_Saxe-Weimar | John_Ernest_I,_Duke_of_Saxe-Weimar | Prince_Wilhelm_of_Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

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