SETSWANA

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  1. Mmegi - Setswana for 'The Reporter'. Online version of this Botswana weekly newspaper.
  2. Morama Community Junior Secondary School - Curriculum and school calendar of this Jwaneng school. English and Setswana.


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    setswana dictionary learn setswana language setswana language learn setswana setswana translation english setswana dictionary setswana names setswana culture



    Tswana language


    Setswana
    Setswana
    Native to Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia
    Native speakers 3.4 million in South Africa (2006)
    2 million in Botswana  (2012)[1]
    Language family
    Writing system Latin (Tswana alphabet)
    Tswana Braille
    Official status
    Official language in  Botswana
     South Africa
    Language codes
    ISO 639-1 tn
    ISO 639-2 tsn
    ISO 639-3 tsn
    Guthrie code S.31[2]
    Linguasphere 99-AUT-eg incl. varieties 99-AUT-ega to 99-AUT-egn
    This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
    The Tswana Language
    Person moTswana
    People baTswana
    Language seTswana
    Country leTswana (also Botswana)
    Geographical distribution of Setswana in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Setswana at home.
      0–20%
      20–40%
      40–60%
      60–80%
      80–100%
    Geographical distribution of Setswana in South Africa: density of Setswana home-language speakers.
      <1 /km²
      1–3 /km²
      3–10 /km²
      10–30 /km²
      30–100 /km²
      100–300 /km²
      300–1000 /km²
      1000–3000 /km²
      >3000 /km²

    Tswana or Setswana is a language spoken in Southern Africa by about 4.5 million people.[3] It is a Bantu language belonging to the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho languages branch of Zone S (S.30), and is closely related to the Northern- and Southern Sotho languages, as well as the Kgalagadi language and the Lozi language.

    Tswana is an official language and lingua franca of Botswana spoken by a little over 2 million of its inhabitants. However, the majority of Tswana speakers are found in South Africa, where 3.4 million people speak the language, and where an urbanised variety known as Pretoria Sotho is the principal language of that city. Until 1994, South African Tswana people were notionally citizens of Bophuthatswana, one of the few bantustans that actually became a reality as planned by the Apartheid regime. Although Tswana language is significantly spoken in South Africa and Botswana, a small number of speakers are also found in Zimbabwe and Namibia, where respectively 29,400 and 12,300 people speak the language.[3]


    Setswana History


    The first European to describe the Tswana language was the Southern Sotho languages.

    The first major work on the Tswana language was carried out by the British [4]

    The first grammar of the Tswana language was published in 1833 by the missionary [5]

    In 1876 the South African intellectual and linguist Solomon Plaatje was born, and he became one of the first writers to extensively write in and about the Tswana language.[4]


    Setswana Phonology



    Setswana Vowels

    The vowel inventory of Tswana can be seen below.[6]

    Front Back
    Close i /i/ u /u/
    Near-close e /ɪ/ o /ʊ/
    Open-mid ê /ɛ/ ô /ɔ/
    Open a /a/

    Some dialects have two additional vowels, the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/.[7]


    Setswana Consonants

    The consonant inventory of Tswana can be seen below.[8]

    Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
    Central Lateral
    Nasal m
    /m/
    n
    /n/
    ny
    /ɲ/
    ng
    /ŋ/
    Plosive Unaspirated p  b
    /p/  /b/
    t  d
    /t/  /d/
    k
    /k/
    Aspirated ph
    /pʰ/
    th
    /tʰ/
    kh
    /kʰ/
    kg
    /qʰ/
    Affricate Unaspirated ts
    /ts/
    tl
    /tɬ/
       j
    /tʃ/  /dʒ/
    Aspirated tsh
    /tsʰ/
    tlh
    /tɬʰ/
    tšh
    /tʃʰ/
    Fricative f
    /f/
    s
    /s/
    š
    /ʃ/
    g
    /χ/
    h
    /h/
    Trill r
    /r/
    Approximant w
    /w/
    l
    /l/
    y
    /j/

    The consonant /d/ is merely an allophone of /l/, when the latter is followed by the vowels /i/ or /u/.[9]

    Tswana also has three click consonants, but these are only used in interjections or ideophones, and tend only to be used by the older generation, and are therefore falling out of use. The three click consonants are the dental click /ǀ/, orthographically c; the lateral click /ǁ/, orthographically x; and the palatal click /ǃ/, orthographically q.[10]

    There are some minor dialectal variations among the consonants between speakers of Tswana. For instance, /χ/ is realised as either /x/ or /h/ by many speakers; /f/ is realised as /h/ in most dialects; and /tɬ/ and /tɬʰ/ are realised as /t/ and /tʰ/ in northern dialects.[11]


    Setswana Stress

    Stress is fixed in Tswana and thus always falls on the penult of a word, although some compounds may receive a secondary stress in the first part of the word. The syllable on which the stress falls is lengthened. Thus, mosadi is realised as [mʊ̀ˈsáːdì].[12]


    Setswana Tone

    Tswana has two tones, high and low, although the latter has a much wider distribution in words than the former. Tones are not marked orthographically which may lead to ambiguity.[13]

    go bua /χʊ búa/ "to speak"
    go bua /χʊ bua/ "to skin an animal"
    o bua Setswana /ʊ́búa setswána/ "He speaks Setswana"
    o bua Setswana /ʊbúa setswána/ "You speak Setswana"

    An important feature of the tones is the so-called spreading of the high tone. If a syllable bears a high tone, the following two syllables will also get high tones, unless they are at the end of the word.[14]

    simolola /símʊlʊla/ > /símʊ́lʊ́la/ "to begin"
    simologêla /símʊlʊχɛla/ > /símʊ́lʊ́χɛla/ "to begin for/at"

    Setswana Grammar



    Setswana Nouns

    Nouns in Tswana are grouped into nine noun classes and one sub-class, each having different prefixes. The nine classes and their respective prefixes can be seen below, along with a short note regarding the common characteristics of most nouns within the respective class.[15]

    Class Singular Plural Characteristics
    1. mo- ba- Persons
    1a. bô- Names, kinship, animals
    2. mo- me-
    ma-
    Miscellaneous
    (including bodyparts, tools,
    instruments, animals, trees, plants)
    3. le- ma-
    4. se- di-
    5. n-
    m-
    ny-
    ng-
    din-
    dim-
    diny-
    ding-
    Animals
    (but also miscellaneous)
    6. lo- Miscellaneous
    (including a number of collective nouns)
    7. bo- ma- Abstract nouns
    8. go- Infinitive forms of verbs
    9. fa-
    go-
    mo-
    Adverbs

    Some nouns may be found in several classes. For instance, many nouns of the class 1 are also found in class 1a, class 3, class 4 and class 5.[16]


    Setswana References



    Setswana Notes


    Setswana General


    Setswana External links




    Setswana Jokes Setswana Bible Setswana Phrases Setswana Lessons Setswana Culture Setswana Language Setswana Dictionary Setswana Language Translation

    | Setswana Jokes | Setswana Bible | Setswana Phrases | Setswana Lessons | Setswana Culture | Setswana Language | Setswana Dictionary | Setswana Language Translation | Setswana | List_of_sotho-Tswana_Clans | Setswana_Braille | Botswana_national_football_team | Mmabatho | Royal_Bafokeng_Nation | Tshepo | Culture_of_Botswana | Ngwao_Boswa_Kapa_Bokone | Matsieng | Kgale_Hill | Karabo | Sotho_nouns | Motswako | Letlhakeng | Sotho_phonology | J_M_Ntsime_High_School | Tlokwa_tribe | Botho_College | Languages_of_South_Africa

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    Dieser Artikel basiert auf dem Artikel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setswana aus der freien Enzyklopaedie http://en.wikipedia.org bzw. http://www.wikipedia.org und steht unter der Doppellizenz GNU-Lizenz fuer freie Dokumentation und Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported. In der Wikipedia ist eine Liste der Autoren unter http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Setswana&action=history verfuegbar. Alle Angaben ohne Gewähr.

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