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|Native to||Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia|
|Native speakers||3.4 million in South Africa (2006)
2 million in Botswana (2012)
|Writing system||Latin (Tswana alphabet)
|Official language in|| Botswana
|Linguasphere||99-AUT-eg incl. varieties 99-AUT-ega to 99-AUT-egn|
|The Tswana Language|
|Country||leTswana (also Botswana)|
Tswana or Setswana is a language spoken in Southern Africa by about 4.5 million people. It is a Bantu language belonging to the Niger–Congo language family within the Sotho languages branch of Zone S (S.30), and is closely related to the Northern- and Southern Sotho languages, as well as the Kgalagadi language and the Lozi language.
Tswana is an official language and lingua franca of Botswana spoken by a little over 2 million of its inhabitants. However, the majority of Tswana speakers are found in South Africa, where 3.4 million people speak the language, and where an urbanised variety known as Pretoria Sotho is the principal language of that city. Until 1994, South African Tswana people were notionally citizens of Bophuthatswana, one of the few bantustans that actually became a reality as planned by the Apartheid regime. Although Tswana language is significantly spoken in South Africa and Botswana, a small number of speakers are also found in Zimbabwe and Namibia, where respectively 29,400 and 12,300 people speak the language.
The first European to describe the Tswana language was the Southern Sotho languages.
The first major work on the Tswana language was carried out by the British 
The first grammar of the Tswana language was published in 1833 by the missionary 
|Close||〈i〉 /i/||〈u〉 /u/|
|Near-close||〈e〉 /ɪ/||〈o〉 /ʊ/|
|Open-mid||〈ê〉 /ɛ/||〈ô〉 /ɔ/|
Tswana also has three click consonants, but these are only used in interjections or ideophones, and tend only to be used by the older generation, and are therefore falling out of use. The three click consonants are the dental click /ǀ/, orthographically 〈c〉; the lateral click /ǁ/, orthographically 〈x〉; and the palatal click /ǃ/, orthographically 〈q〉.
There are some minor dialectal variations among the consonants between speakers of Tswana. For instance, /χ/ is realised as either /x/ or /h/ by many speakers; /f/ is realised as /h/ in most dialects; and /tɬ/ and /tɬʰ/ are realised as /t/ and /tʰ/ in northern dialects.
Stress is fixed in Tswana and thus always falls on the penult of a word, although some compounds may receive a secondary stress in the first part of the word. The syllable on which the stress falls is lengthened. Thus, mosadi is realised as [mʊ̀ˈsáːdì].
An important feature of the tones is the so-called spreading of the high tone. If a syllable bears a high tone, the following two syllables will also get high tones, unless they are at the end of the word.
Nouns in Tswana are grouped into nine noun classes and one sub-class, each having different prefixes. The nine classes and their respective prefixes can be seen below, along with a short note regarding the common characteristics of most nouns within the respective class.
|1a.||–||bô-||Names, kinship, animals|
(including bodyparts, tools,
instruments, animals, trees, plants)
(but also miscellaneous)
(including a number of collective nouns)
|8.||go-||Infinitive forms of verbs|
Some nouns may be found in several classes. For instance, many nouns of the class 1 are also found in class 1a, class 3, class 4 and class 5.
|Tswana edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|