TOSEFTA

Tosefta English Translation Tosefta Tractate E. Rubin VIII Tosefta Sanhedrin Tosefta Judaism Tosefta Sotah Yadaim Definition Tractate Sanhedrin Mishnah Sanhedrin




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Tosefta


The Tosefta (Talmudic Aramaic: תוספתא. Additions, Supplements) is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah.


Tosefta Overview


In many ways, the Tosefta acts as a supplement to the Mishnah (tosefta means "supplement or addition"). The Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה) is the basic compilation of the Oral law of Judaism; it was compiled around 220 CE. The Tosefta closely corresponds to the Mishnah, with the same divisions for sedarim ("orders") and masekhot ("tractates"). It is mainly written in Mishnaic Hebrew, with some Aramaic.

At times the text of the Tosefta agrees nearly verbatim with the Mishnah. At others there are significant differences. The Tosefta often attributes laws that are anonymous in the Mishnah to named Tannaim. It also augments the Mishnah with additional glosses and discussions. It offers additional aggadic and midrashic material, and it sometimes contradicts the Mishnah in the ruling of Jewish law, or in attributing in whose name a law was stated.


Tosefta Origins


According to rabbinic tradition, the Tosefta was redacted by Rabbis Ḥiya and Oshaiah (a student of Ḥiya).[1] Whereas the Mishna was considered authoritative, the Tosefta was supplementary. The Talmud often utilizes the traditions found in the Tosefta to examine the text of the Mishnah.

The traditional view is that the Tosefta should be dated to a period concurrent with or shortly after the redaction of the Mishnah. This view pre-supposes that the Tosefta was produced in order to record variant material not included in the Mishnah.

Modern scholarship can be roughly divided into two camps. Some, such as baraitot collections which were in use during the Amoraic period.

More recent scholarship, such as that of Yaakov Elman, concludes that since the Tosefta, as we know it, must be dated linguistically as an example of Middle Hebrew 1, it was most likely compiled in early Amoraic times from oral transmission of baraitot.[2] Professor Shamma Friedman, has found that the Tosefta draws on relatively early Tannaitic source material and that parts of the Tosefta predate the Mishnah.[3]

[4]

Ultimately, the state of the source material is such to allow divergent opinions to exist. These opinions serve to show the difficulties in establishing a clear picture of the origins of the Tosefta.


Tosefta Manuscripts / Editions / Commentaries



Tosefta Manuscripts

Three manuscripts exist of the Tosefta, they are:

  • 'Vienna' (late 13th century; Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek Cod hebr. 20),
  • 'Erfurt' (c. 14th century; Berlin - Staatsbibliothek (Preussischer Kulturbesitz) Or. fol. 1220), and,
  • 'London' (15th century; London - British Library Add. 27296).

The Editio Princeps was printed in Venice in 1521 as an addendum to Isaac Alfasi's Halakhot.

Many Geniza fragments have been published online by Bar Ilan University.[5]


Tosefta Editions

Two critical editions have been published. The first was that of Moses Samuel Zuckermandl in 1882, which relied heavily on the Erfurt manuscript of the Tosefta. Zuckermandl's work has been characterized as a "a great step forward" for its time.[6]!

In 1955 Saul Lieberman began publishing his monumental Tosefta ki-Feshutah. Between 1955 and 1973, ten volumes of the new edition were published, representing the text and the commentaries on the entire orders of Zera'im, Mo'ed and Nashim. In 1988, three volumes were published posthumously on the order of Nezikin, including tractates Bava Kama, Bava Metziah, and Bava Basrah. Lieberman's work has been called the "pinnacle of modern Tosefta studies."[7]


Tosefta Commentaries

Major commentaries on the Tosefta include those by:

  • David Pardo: Chasdei David; Originally published in Livorno (1776), and printed in editions of the Vilna Shas.
  • Yehezkel Abramsky: Hazon Yehezkel (24 volumes, 1925-1975 in Hebrew).
  • Saul Lieberman: Tosefet Rishonim, Jerusalem 1937.
  • Jacob Neusner and his pupils (in a series called A History of the Mishnaic Law, 1978–87)

Tosefta Translations

The Tosefta has been translated into English by Rabbi Jacob Neusner and his students in the commentary cited above, also published separately as The Tosefta: translated from the Hebrew (6 vols, 1977–86)

Eli Gurevich's English translation and detailed commentary on the Tosefta is in the progress of being written. It can be downloaded for free from his website http://www.toseftaonline.org/.


Tosefta See also



Tosefta Notes


  1. ^ Rashi in his commentary on Talmud Sanhedrin 33a, s.v. v'afilu ta'ah b'rebbi Hiyya.
  2. ^ Yaakov Elman, Authority & Tradition, Yeshiva Univ. Press, 1994; "Babylonian Baraitot in Tosefta and the `Dialectology' of Middle Hebrew," Association for Jewish Studies Review 16 (1991), 1-29.
  3. ^ S.Y. Friedman, Le-Hithavvut Shinnuye ha-Girsaot be'Talmud ha-Bavli, Sidra 7, 1991.
  4. ^ Alberdina Houtman, Mishnah and Tosefta: A Synoptic Comparison of the Tractates Berakhot, Mohr Siebeck, 1996
  5. ^ Available at: http://www.biu.ac.il/js/tannaim/
  6. ^ Stephen G. Wald, Tosefta in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 20. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference US, 2007. p70-72
  7. ^ Stephen G. Wald, Tosefta in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ibid.

Tosefta External links




Tosefta English Translation Tosefta Tractate E. Rubin VIII Tosefta Sanhedrin Tosefta Judaism Tosefta Sotah Yadaim Definition Tractate Sanhedrin Mishnah Sanhedrin

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