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|Nickname: Land of the Hummingbird|
Map of Trinidad and Tobago
|Area||4,748 km2 (1,833 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||940 m (3,080 ft)|
|Highest point||El Cerro del Aripo|
|Largest city||Chaguanas (pop. 100,000)|
|Density||262.7 /km2 (680.4 /sq mi)|
|Ethnic groups||Black, White, Asian, Middle Eastern|
|Time zone: GMT −4 (Trinidad does not observe DST)|
Trinidad (Spanish: "Trinity") is the largest and most populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. It is the southernmost island in the Caribbean and lies just 11 km (6.8 mi) off the northeastern coast of Venezuela. With an area of 4,768 km2 (1,841 sq mi) it is also the fifth largest in the West Indies.
Many believe[who?] the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was "Iëre" which meant "Land of the Humming Bird". Some believe that "Iere" was actually a mispronunciation/corruption by early colonists of the Arawak word "Kairi" which simply means "Island". Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad" ("The Island of the Trinity"), fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration.
Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Columbus encountered the islands on his third voyage in 1498. Tobago changed hands between the British, French, Dutch and Courlanders, but eventually ended up in British hands. Trinidad remained Spanish until 1797, but it was largely settled by French colonists from Martinique. In 1889 the two islands became a single crown colony. Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the British Empire in 1962.
Major landforms include the hills of the Northern, Central and Southern Ranges (Dinah ranges), the Caroni, Nariva and Oropouche Swamps, and the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni, North and South Oropouche and Ortoire Rivers. There are many other natural landforms such as beaches and waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per calendar year, the rainy season and the dry season.
Trinidad is popular for its savory food options. The food is diverse, cultural and traditional in many cases. It is influenced by many different styles, such as Indian, Spanish, African and more. Over time it has been adapted and changed to what is known as Trinidadian food today. The most popular Trinidadian dishes include pelau (rice, vegetables and sometimes meat cooked together), doubles (an East Indian delicacy), roti, callaloo, bake and shark, crab and dumplings.
Diversity is the status quo in Trinidad and Tobago. It is sometimes known as a "rainbow island" or more fondly "a callaloo" (local dialect for a delicious dish prepared by blending a variety of ingredients). There is a wide range of ethnicity, religion, and culture. As of the 2012 Trinidad and Tobago Census,the population was 35% East Indian "Indo-Trinidadian", 34% African "Afro-Trinidadian", 23% mixed and 8% Other " Many of these groups overlap heavily due to Admixture, for example "Dougla" is a common term used to describe a person which is of African and East Indian descent but may self-identify as either group. Trinidad religion primarily centers round Roman Catholic, Anglican, Muslim and Hindu faiths. Roman Catholicism constitutes the largest religion denomination of the country. Some of the more popular religious festivals are the Santa Rosa Festival, Christmas, Easter, Divali, Eid Ul Fitr and Phagwa. There are also multiple festivals that are based around the music of the Caribbean and the steel pan, which originated in Trinidad and is the country's national instrument. These festivals include the world famous Carnival, J'ouvert, and Panorama, the national steel pan competition. There are also places that can be visited that hold cultural significance, such as Mount Saint Benedict and the Temple in the Sea.
The island of Trinidad has a wide biodiversity of both plant and animal species that are unique to the island. Native animals include the Black Tailed Tree Boa, Red Brocket Deer, Collared Peccary, Red Howler Monkey, and Ocelot. Trinidad has a rich avifauna, including a single endemic species, the Trinidad Piping Guan.
It is an industrial island with a diversified economy, based to a large extent on oil, natural gas, industry and agriculture. It is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories. It is an oil-rich country and stable economically.
The Venezuela Tertiary Basin is a subsidence basin formed between the Caribbean and South American plates, and is bounded on the north by the coast ranges of Venezuela and the Northern Range of Trinidad, and bounded on the south by the Guayana shield. This Guayana shield supplied fine-grained clastic sediments, which with the subsidence, formed a regional negative gravity anomaly and growth faults. Oil and gas discoveries from the Pliocene Moruga Group include Teak (1968), Samaan (1971), Poui (1972) and Galeota. These fields are mainly faulted anticline traps producing from depths of 1.2 km to 4.2 km subsea, with Teak possessing a hudrocarbon column almost 1 km thick.
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