Dardanelles Straits Black Sea Straits Straits of Bosphorus Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits Dardanelles and Bosporus What Do the Dardanelles Connect Turkish Straits Crisis Turkish Strait Disambig
| Dardanelles Straits | Black Sea Straits | Straits of Bosphorus | Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits | Dardanelles and Bosporus | What Do the Dardanelles Connect | Turkish Straits Crisis | Turkish Strait Disambig |
| Turkish_Straits | Turkish_Straits_crisis | List_of_maritime_incidents_in_the_Turkish_Straits | Montreux_Convention_Regarding_the_Regime_of_the_Turkish_Straits | Turkey | Dardanelles_Straits | Black_Sea | Bosphorous_straits | Sea_of_Marmara | Gallipoli | Turkish_Navy | London_Straits_Convention | Greek-Turkish_Assistance_Act_of_1948 | Russian_naval_facility_in_Tartus | Pan-European_Oil_Pipeline | Lodos | Second_Cairo_Conference | Directorate_General_of_Coastal_Safety | Montreux_(disambiguation) |
The term Turkish Straits (Turkish: Türk Boğazları) refers to the two narrow straits in northwestern Turkey, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, that connect the Sea of Marmara with the Black Sea on one side and the Aegean arm of the Mediterranean Sea on the other. They are conventionally considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. The Turkish Straits have been governed since 1936 by the Montreux Convention.
The Straits have been of urgent maritime strategic importance since the Trojan War was fought near the Aegean entrance. In the declining days of the Ottoman Empire the "Straits Question" involved the diplomats of Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
By the terms of the London Straits Convention concluded on July 13, 1841, between the Great Powers of Europe — Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia — the "ancient rule" of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish straits to all warships whatsoever, barring those of the sultan's allies during wartime. It thus benefited British naval power at the expense of Russian as the latter lacked direct access for its navy to the Mediterranean.
The treaty is one in a series dealing with access to the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. It evolved from the secret 1833 Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (Unkiar Skelessi), in which the Ottoman Empire guaranteed exclusive use of the Straits to "Black Sea Powers" (i.e., Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire) warships in the case of a general war.
The modern treaty controlling relations is the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits, which is still in force. It gives Republic of Turkey control over warships entering the straits but guarantees the free passage of civilian vessels in peacetime.