UKRAINIAN AIR FORCE

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Ukrainian Air Force


Ukrainian Air Force
Повітряні Сили України
Povitriani Syly Ukrayiny
Emblem of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg
Emblem of Ukrainian Air Force
Country Ukraine
Type Air force
Size 43,100 personnel
247 aircraft [1]
Headquarters Vinnytsia
Commanders
Commander Sergii Ivanovich Onishchenko
Insignia
Air Force flag Ensign of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg
Roundel Roundel of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg
Fin flash Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack Su-25, Mi-24
Bomber Su-24M
Fighter Su-27, MiG-29
Reconnaissance An-30, Su-24MR
Trainer L-39, Yak-52
Transport Il-76, An-24, An-26, An-30, Mi-8,

The Ukrainian Air Force (Ukrainian: Повітряні Сили України, Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.[2] Ukrainian Air Force headquarters is located in the city of Vinnytsia. When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, a large number of aircraft were left on Ukrainian territory. Ever since, the Ukrainian air force has been downsizing and upgrading its forces. But in spite of these efforts, the main inventory of the air force consists of Soviet-made aircraft. Currently 43,100 personnel and 247 aircraft are in service in the Ukrainian air force and air defense forces.[3][4] All ICBMs and strategic bombers have been taken out of service (some however were given to Russia).[5]


Ukrainian Air Force Mission


Ukrainian Air Corps patch

The primary tasks of the Air Force of Ukraine are: winning operational air superiority, delivering air strikes against enemy units and facilities, covering troops against enemy air strikes, providing air support to the Land Force and the Navy, disrupting enemy military and state management, damaging and destroying enemy communication, and providing support by air in the form of reconnaissance, air drops, troops and cargo transportation.

The major mission of the Air Force is to protect the air space of Ukraine. During peace-time, this is carried out by flying air-space control missions over the entire territory of Ukraine (603,700 square km), and by preventing air space intrusion along the aerial borders (totaling almost 7,000 km, including 5,600 km of land and 1,400 km of sea). Every single day, more than 2,200 service personnel and civilian employees of the Air Force, employing 400 items of weapons and equipment, are summoned to perform defense duties. On average, the Ukrainian radar forces detect and track more than 1,000 targets daily. As a result, in 2006 two illegal crossings of the state border were prevented and 28 violations of Ukrainian air space were prevented. Due to such increased strengthening of air space control, the number of air space violations decreased by 35% compared to the previous year, even though the amount of air traffic increased by 30%.[6]

Military of Ukraine
Emblem of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.svg
Main branches
Emblem of the Ukrainian Air Force.svg Ukrainian Air Force
Emblem of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.svg Ukrainian Ground Forces
Emblem of the Ukrainian Navy.svg Ukrainian Navy
Other Corps
Ukr marines.jpg Ukrainian Marine Corps
Ukr mechanized.jpg Ukrainian Mechanized Forces
Ukr airborne.jpg Ukrainian Airmobile Forces
Related Services
MoD symbol.jpg Ministry of Defense
General Staff UA.jpg General Staff
MVS of Ukraine.gif Ministry of Internal Affairs
NSAU Logo1.svg National Space Agency
Intelligence
Security Service of Ukraine.gif Security Service of Ukraine
SZRU logo.jpg Foreign Intelligence Service
Hur ukraine.jpg Military Intelligence Service
History of the Ukrainian Military
History of Ukraine
History of Ukraine during WWII
History of Ukraine during WWI

Ukrainian Air Force History



Ukrainian Air Force Collapse of the USSR

The Ukrainian Air Force was established on March 17, 1992, in accordance with a Directive of the General Staff Chief of the Armed Forces. The headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet.

The new Air Force inherited the Poltava.

Ukraine also had Tupolev Tu-22s, Tupolev Tu-22Ms and Tupolev Tu-95s for a period after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The 106th Heavy Bomber Aviation Division, part of the 37th Air Army operated some of them.[10] However, these have all been scrapped, apart from a handful displayed in museums. TU-16 and TU-22M bombers were among the aircraft destroyed under the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty.[11] It is reported that Tu-16s based with the 251st Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment at Belaya Tserkov were dismantled in 1993.[12] By 1995, the IISS Military Balance 1995/96 listed no Tu-22 Blinders in service, though a listing for one division HQ and two regiments of Tu-22M Backfires remained in the Military Balance from 1995/96 to 2000/01.

From January 24, 1992, after the collapse of the USSR, [16] The Military Balance 95/96 said that six fighter regiments had been disbanded. (p.71)

On 18 March 1994 the 5th Air Army was redesignated the 5th Air Corps.[17] By 1996 there were two air corps: the 14th in the Carpathian MD and the 5th in the Odessa MD, which by that time incorporated the former Kiev MD area.[18] The long range bomber division at Poltava was still operational, reporting directly to Air Force headquarters.


Ukrainian Air Force Developments and reforms

Sukhoi Su-27 in July 2011.

In 2011 International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates that Ukraine's Air Force includes one Sukhoi Su-24M regiment, 5 regiments with Mikoyan MiG-29s and Sukhoi Su-27, one regiment with Sukhoi Su-25, two squadrons with Sukhoi Su-24MR, three transport regiments, some support helicopter squadrons, one helicopter training regiment, and some air training squadrons with L-39 Albatros.[19] They are grouped into the 5th and 14th Aviation Corps, the 35th Aviation Group, which is a multi-role rapid reaction formation, and a training aviation command. The IISS assesses the overall force size as 817 aircraft of all types and 43,100 personnel. Russian sources disagree and list three aviation groups (West, South, and Center).[20][broken citation]

In 2006, a large number of aging weapons and equipment were decommissioned from combat service by the Air Force. This presented an opportunity to use the released funds to the modernization of various items of aviation and anti-aircraft artillery weapons and equipment, radio communication equipment, and flight maintenance equipment, as well as an improvement of Air Force personnel training.

The automated systems of collection, processing and transmission of radio information have been adopted as a component part of the Automated Command and Control System for aviation and air defense. Operational service testing of the circular surveillance radar station has also been completed. Prototypes of high-precision weapons systems, electronic warfare devices, and navigation equipment have been created and developed for state testing.

The An-24 and An-26 aircraft, as well as the anti-aircraft artillery systems S-300 and “Buk M1”, have been continually modernized, and their service life has been extended. An organizational basis and technological means for modernizing MiG-29, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, L-39 has been produced. Given sufficient funding from the Verkhovna Rada, the Defense Industrial Complex of Ukraine, in cooperation with foreign companies and manufacturers, is capable of fully renewing the aircraft arsenal of the Ukrainian armed forces.

The structural reorganization of the Air Force had set as goals for itself the sufficiently reducing the total number of command and control levels, and increasing the efficiency of command and control processes. The reorganization of command and control elements of the air force is still underway. The first step of this organization was to transition from the existing air commands to the Command and Control and warning center systems. This will not only help eliminate duplications at the command and control levels, but will also contribute to an increased centralization of the command and control system, the multi-functionality of the command and control elements, and effectiveness of response to the change of air conditions. 2006 saw the definition of the functions and tasks, organization and work of the C2 and Warning Center as well as the mechanism of interaction with the establishment of the Air Operations Center and Joint Operational Command. During the command and staff exercise one of the Air Force Commands has in effect performed control of “C2 and Warning Center – formation (unit)” level.


Ukrainian Air Force Plans

In 2005, the UAF was planning to restructure in an effort to improve efficiency. Moreover, Ukraine is planning to put more advanced jet aircraft into service in upcoming years. Possibly buying newer SU-27s and MiG-29s from Russia. This means that from approximately 2012, Ukraine will have to either take bold steps to create a new combat aircraft or purchase a large number of existing combat aircraft. Due to the lack of funding however, technical modernization was continually postponed. The Ukrainian air-force continued to use armament and military equipment which functioned mainly thanks to so-called ‘cannibalization’ (obtaining spare parts from other units), thus gradually depleting their total capabilities. Faced with the threat of losing military capability, initiating the process of technical modernization became a necessity.[21]


Ukrainian Air Force Training


Ukrainian MiG-29
Ukrainian Su-25UB

Training activities have taken on a qualitatively new character due to their complexity, including the simultaneous employment of all branches of the Air Force aviation, anti-aircraft artillery and radar troops in close teamwork with units of other armed services of the Armed Forces. Operational and combat training has included the following activities:

  • aviation units have performed more than 6,000 tasks in combat scenarios (including more than 1,500 air battles and interceptions, 629 firing at land-based targets, 530 bombings, 21 launches of air missiles, 454 tasks in aerial surveillance, 454 airborne landings, 740 airlifts, 575 flight shifts for a total of 10,553 flying hours);
  • five tactical flying missions in a squadron, 14 in a pair and 5 in a flight organization have been carried out to perform the assigned combat tasks, and 54 pilots have been trained to perform specific tasks in difficult meteorological conditions;
  • the number of flight crews being trained to defend the air space of the country and counter-terrorism air operations has almost doubled from 46 in 2005 to 90 in 2006; the units of anti-aircraft artillery and radar troops carried out 50 maneuvers involving redeployment, with each operator tracking 70 and 140 real and simulated targets, respectively.

In early September 2007, the Ukrainian Air Force conducted the most large-scale training of its aircraft to date. As the Defense Minister of Ukraine, Anatoliy Hrytsenko stated, "The most large-scale, during the whole 16 years of the Ukrainian independence, training of fighting aircraft, which defends our air space, was carried out during September 4–5". According to him, they fulfilled 45 battle launches of “air-air” missiles, out of them 22 during the day and 23- at night. 35 pilots confirmed their high skills during the training. Hrytsenko stressed that 100% of air targets were hit. [22]

The combined training of the Air Force of Ukraine and the Russian Air Force in the practical control of their air defense Stand-by Forces has become more systematic. Moreover, interoperability has been achieved between the forces of Ukraine and the command and control elements of the Air defense of the Russian Federation during the detecting, tracking, and neutralizing of air targets during simulated terrorist attacks.


Ukrainian Air Force Air Defense Forces


The Air Defense Force is a relatively new service within the Armed Forces, established in 2004-2005, through the merging of the Air Force and the Air Defense Force. It allowed the Armed Forces of Ukraine to adopt the tri-service structure, common to most modern armies.

The Air Defense of Ukraine performs key tasks in the protection of Ukraine’s sovereignty and the inviolability of its borders and air space. It has clearly defined functions in both peacetime and wartime, is intended to prevent any enemy air and missile strikes, to defend the most important administrative, political and industrial centers, to aid in the concentration of Army and Navy units, to intercept enemy aircraft and other military objects, and to protect against enemy air and cruise missile strikes.


Ukrainian Air Force Aircraft Inventory


Aircraft Image Origin Type Versions Numbers [23] Comments
Trainer Aircraft
Aero L-39 Albatros L-39 Albatros 2008 G1.jpg  CSK Training L-39/L-39M1 39 [24] 3 L-39M1 Ukrainian upgrade(1 in 2011, 2 in June 2012). In 2012 will be repaired 12 aircraft (2 will receive in June), 4 will be modernized[25]
Yakovlev Yak-52 ЯК-52 Майское Днепропетровск 15.08.2009.JPG  USSR Training Yak-52M 20 Total 80. Active not more 20.
Fighter Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-27 Sukhoi Su-27UB Belyakov.jpg  USSR Air Superiority Fighter Su-27
Su-27S
Su-27C
Su-27P
Su-27UB
36 Total 42 Su-27. Only 16 are in full combat readiness, others are in reserve. Two were repaired, 2 more will be repaired till the end of 2012[25]
Mikoyan MiG-29 MiG-29-2008-Vasylkiv.jpg  USSR Multirole Aircraft MiG-29
MiG-29S
MiG-29A
MiG-29M
MiG-29UB
MiG-29MU1
80[24] Around 100 in reserve. 5 MiG-29MU1 Ukrainian upgrade (1 in 2011). Additional two were renovated in 2012.[25]
Bomber Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-24 2007 G3.jpg  USSR Tactical Bomber Su-24M 36[24] Total 120 Su-24, some Su-24M, only 36 in service, other are in conservation. One Su-24M will be repaired [25]
Reconnaissance
Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-24 2007 G3.jpg  USSR Reconnaissance Su-24MR 23[24]
Antonov An-30  USSR Reconnaissance/aerial cartography An-30B 2
Ground Attack
Sukhoi Su-25 Ukrainian Air Force Su-25UB with two MiG-29s (9-13) in background.jpg  USSR Close air support Su-25
Su-25UB
Su-25K
Su-25UTG
Su-25M1
Su-25UBM1
36[24] Total 46 Su-25. Four Su-25M1 and 1 Su-25UBM1 Ukrainian upgrade(received in 2010-2011).[26]
Transport Aircraft
Ilyushin Il-76 Ukrainian Air Force IL-76.jpg  USSR Transport Il-76MD 2[24] Total 20. Only 2 in service, another in storage.
Antonov An-70 Antonov An-70 in 2008.jpg  UKR Transport An-70 2
Antonov An-2 АН-2 Майское Днепропетровск 27.08.2011.JPG  USSR Transport An-2 3
Antonov An-24 Polet Antonov An-24 Pichugin-1.jpg  USSR Transport An-24 3
Antonov An-26 An-26 6863.JPG  USSR Transport An-26 21 Several upgraded as An-26 "Vita" flying hospitals
Tupolev TU-134  USSR VIP Transport 2
Helicopters
Mil Mi-8/17 Ukrainian Mi-8 helicopter, Sea Breeze 2011 cropped.jpg  USSR Transport helicopter Mi-17
Mi-8MT
28 Total ~100. Active not more 30.
Mi-8MSB1 Ukrainian Mi-8 helicopter, Sea Breeze 2011 cropped.jpg  USSR
 UKR
Transport helicopter Mi-8MT Ordered. Modernized by the Ukrainian Air Force, will enter the serial modernization/production in late 2011.[27]
Mil Mi-24 Mi24ukraine.JPG  USSR Attack/Transport helicopter Mi-24P
Mi-24V
Mi-24PM
48
Mi-2MSB2 Helicopter Mi-2 2008 G2.jpg  POL
 UKR
Light Transport helicopter Mi-2 Ordered. Modernized by the Ukrainian Air Force, will enter the serial modernization/production in late 2011.[27]

Ukrainian Air Force Former Aircraft


Former Ukrainian Tu-22M
A Tu-22M being scrapped as a result of defence cuts in the Ukrainian military
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[28]
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25  Soviet Union Interceptor MiG-25 Former
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21  Soviet Union fighter MiG-21 Former
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23  Soviet Union Fighter MiG-23 Former
Mikoyan MiG-27  Soviet Union Attack MiG-27 Former
Sukhoi Su-17  Soviet Union Fighter-bomber Su-17 Former
Sukhoi Su-15  Soviet Union Interceptor Su-15 Former
Yakovlev Yak-28  Soviet Union Medium bomber Yak-28 Former
Tupolev Tu-160  Soviet Union Strategic bomber Tu-160 Former
Tupolev Tu-95  Soviet Union Strategic bomber Tu-95 Former
Tupolev Tu-22M3  Soviet Union Strategic bomber Tu-22M3 Former
Tupolev Tu-22  Soviet Union Medium bomber Tu-22 Former
Tupolev Tu-16  Soviet Union Bomber Tu-16 Former
Tupolev Tu-154  Soviet Union VIP transport Tu-154 Former

Ukrainian Air Force Structure


Ukrainian Air Commands:
   Air Command West
   Air Command Center
   Air Command South

An incomplete structure of the Ukrainian air force.

  • Air Command Centre
    • 31st separate regiment command and communication
    • ?? separate radio Brigade (Vasylkiv, Kyiv oblast.)
    • 40th separate radio Brigade (Kharkiv)
    • 40th Tactical Aviation Brigade (Vasylkiv, Kyiv, 16 MiG-29)
    • Poltava oblast. 42 Su-27)
    • 9th Tactical Aviation Brigade (Ozerne, Zhytomyr oblast. MiG-29) - airbase were closed
    • 25th Transport Aviation Brigade (Melitopol, Zaporizhia. Il-76/78)
    • 15th Transport Aviation Brigade (Boryspil, Kyiv oblast. An-30, Tu-134, An-24/26, Mi-8)
    • 456th Transport Aviation Brigade (Vinnytsia oblast. An-26 and Mi-8)
    • 96th Anti-Aircraft Artillery brigade (Danylivka, Kyiv oblast. S-200. S-300)
    • 137th Anti-Aircraft Artillery brigade (Uman, Cherkasy oblast. S-300)
    • 120th Anti-Aircraft Artillery brigade (Kharkiv. S-300)
    • 302nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Kharkiv. S-300)
    • 108th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Zolotonosha. Cherkasy oblast. Buk-M1)
    • 138th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Dnipropetrovsk. S-300)
    • 156th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Donetsk and Luhansk oblast. Buk-M1)
    • 3rd Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Pervomaisk, Mykolaiv oblast. S-300)
    • “ChARZ” Aviation Repair Plant (Chuhuiv, Kharkiv oblast)
    • “Aviakon” Aviation Repair Plant (Konotop, Sumy oblast)
  • Air Command South
    • 43rd separate regiment communication and management (Odesa)
    • 14th separate radio team (Odesa)
    • Kulbakino, Mykolaiv oblast. 36 Su-25)
    • 28th Separate Mixed Aviation Squadron (Kulbakino, Mykolaiv oblast. L-39, Su-24M, Su-25)
    • 160th Anti-Aircraft Artillery brigade (Odesa. S-300, S-200)
    • 208th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery brigade (Kherson. S-300, S-200)
    • 301st Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Nikopol, Dnipropetrovsk oblast. S-300)
    • “MARP” aircraft repair plant (Mykolaiv)
  • Task Force "Crimea"
    • ??? a separate radio team (Sevastopol)
    • 204th Tactical Aviation Brigade (Belbek, near Sevastopol. 39 MiG-29)
    • 174th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Derhachi near Sevastopol. the S-300)
    • 50th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Feodosiya. S-300, S-200)
    • 55th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment (Yevpatoriya. Buk-M1)

Ukrainian Air Force See also



Ukrainian Air Force Notes


  1. ^ http://www.mil.gov.ua/index.php?part=white_book&lang=en
  2. ^ "Military Balance in Europe 2011"., March 07, 2011.
  3. ^ Trendafilovski, Vladimir (March 2006). "Ukrainian Reforms". AirForces Monthly (#216): 32–39. 
  4. ^ Air Forces Monthly, December 2007 issue, p.64.
  5. ^ http://www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org/the-conventional-imbalance-and-debate-on-russian-non-strategic-nuclear-weapons_462.html
  6. ^ "The White Book 2011"
  7. ^ Michael Holm, 161st Fighter Aviation Regiment, accessed December 2012.
  8. ^ Michael Holm, 184th Guards Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment, accessed November 2011.
  9. ^ a b Butowski, Piotr. "Russia's Strategic Bomber Force". Combat Aircraft 4 (6): 552–565. 
  10. ^ http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/bad/106tbad.htm
  11. ^ FBIS-SOV-95-141, 21 July 1995, via BICC, 'Defence Conversion in Ukraine.'
  12. ^ ru:Дальняя_авиация_Украины, Ruwiki article on Ukrainian Long Range Aviation.
  13. ^ http://www.8oapvo.su/structure/38-structure1992
  14. ^ MilBal 1992-93, 87.
  15. ^ Ukrwiki article on Ukrainian air bases; see also http://forum.gp.dn.ua/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=632
  16. ^ Paul Jackson, 'Ukraine Unveiled,' Air Forces Monthly, March 1994, 21.
  17. ^ Шестидесятилетний юбилей отметил 5-й авиационный корпус, accessed November 2012.
  18. ^ Andrew Duncan, 'Ukraine's forces find that change is good,' Jane's Intelligence Review, April 1997, 164 (air corps existence only)
  19. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, Military Balance 2011
  20. ^ http://www8.brinkster.com/vad777/sng/ukraine/ukraine_vvs_chasti.htm
  21. ^ http://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/eastweek/2012-02-01/ukraine-will-finally-invest-modernising-its-army
  22. ^ UNIAN - Ukrainian Air Force carried out the most large-scale training of fighting aircraft
  23. ^ "World Air Forces 2013". Flightglobal.com, December 11, 2012.
  24. ^ a b c d e f The Military Balance 2011,International Institute for Strategic Studies. [1]
  25. ^ a b c d http://www.armstrade.org/includes/periodics/news/2012/0406/134012366/detail.shtml
  26. ^ http://sdelanounas.in.ua/blogs/11033/
  27. ^ a b (Ukrainian) Which helicopters will be built in Ukraine: Mi-8 or old Mi-2?
  28. ^ "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.

Ukrainian Air Force References



Ukrainian Air Force External links




Armed Forces of Ukraine Air Force Continuation Ukraine Military Strength Ukraine Aviation Aire Serv of West Michigan

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